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Review Article
Pulmonology
Overview of management of children with COVID-19
Dyah Kanya Wati, Arya Krisna Manggala
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(9):345-354.   Published online July 17, 2020
The specific treatments for COVID-19 in children remain inconclusive and debatable despite effectively decreasing its signs and symptoms.
The need for clinical trials and reports should be investigated.
Gastroenterology
Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents: significance of environmental factors
Sowon Park, Yunkoo Kang, Hong Koh, Seung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(9):337-344.   Published online December 6, 2019
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing immune-mediated disease of the intestinal tract. Although its prevalence is reportedly lower in Asia than in Western countries, the rapid increase in the incidence of IBD has drawn attention to its etiology, including genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Specifically, recent studies concerning dietary treatments and intestinal microbiota suggest that these factors may...
Perspective
Infection
Can we get a clue for the etiology of Kawasaki disease in the COVID-19 pandemic?
Jong-Woon Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(9):335-336.   Published online July 13, 2020
A new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading globally since December 2019. Children with a Kawasaki disease (KD)-like illness related with COVID-19 have been reported in Europe and the United States. They presented with symptoms of KD with or without cardiac abnormalities or shock, showing manifestations of hyperactive proinflammatory cytokine reactions like KD. Such cases may provide the opportunity for us to learn more about the etiology and pathogenesis of KD.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Evaluation of the role of ischemia modified albumin in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Mohamed A. Talat, Rabab M. Saleh, Mohammed M. Shehab, Naglaa A. Khalifa, Maha Mahmoud Hamed Sakr, Walaa M. Elmesalamy
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):329-334.   Published online August 15, 2020
Question: What is the value of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as a diagnostic marker for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)?
Finding: IMA levels were significantly higher (nearly double elevation) in hypoxic than healthy newborns in the first few hours after birth in the full-term neonates.
Meaning: IMA can be a reliable marker for the early diagnosis of neonatal HIE and can be a predictor of injury severity.
Cardiology
Age-, sex-, and height-based blood pressure reference charts, Yazd children 6–18 years, Iran
Nastaran ahmadi, Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh, Seyed Mahmood Sadr Bafghi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Masoud Mirzaei, Mohammadtaghi Sarebanhassanabadi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Reza Faraji, Neda Nilforoshan, Ahmad Karimi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):321-328.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: What is the 90th, 95th, 99th percentile of blood pressure based on height as the cut point for diagnosis of hypertension in children of our province?
Finding: We used blood pressure of 456 males and 579 females in 6–18 years old in “Iranian Children and Adolescents' Psychiatric Disorders survey.
Meaning: The 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sex based on age and 10-cm height intervals were developed in Yazd.
Hematology
Effects of α-tocopherol on hemolysis and oxidative stress markers on red blood cells in β-thalassemia major
Nora Sovira, Munar Lubis, Pustika Amalia Wahidiyat, Franciscus D. Suyatna, Djajadiman Gatot, Saptawati Bardosono, Mohammad Sadikin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):314-320.   Published online August 15, 2020
Question: Is the α-tocopherol as an exogenous antioxidant supplementation effective in improving hemolysis and oxidative stress on β-thalassemia major?
Finding: We found significant enhancements in plasma haptoglobin were noted in the α-tocopherol group (3.01 mg/dL; range, 0.60–42.42 mg/dL; P=0.021).
Meaning: The α-tocopherol can improve hemolysis by increasing the haptoglobin level as hemolysis marker.
Review Article
Nutrition
Components of human breast milk: from macronutrient to microbiome and microRNA
Su Yeong Kim, Dae Yong Yi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):301-309.   Published online March 23, 2020
Human breast milk (HBM) is essential for the infant’s growth and development right after birth and is an irreplaceable source of nutrition for early human survival. Various infant formulas have many similarities to HBM in many components, but there is no perfect substitute for HBM. Recently, various breast milk components and their roles have been studied according to the development...
Neurology
Autoimmune encephalitis and epilepsy: evolving definition and clinical spectrum
Joo Hee Seo, Yun-Jin Lee, Ki Hyeong Lee, Elakkat Gireesh, Holly Skinner, Michael Westerveld
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):291-300.   Published online August 16, 2019
Advances in autoimmune encephalitis studies in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to the disorder. The disorder or syndrome has been linked to a wide variety of pathologic processes associated with the neuron-specific autoantibodies targeting intracellular and plasma membrane antigens. However, current criteria for autoimmune encephalitis...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Short- and long-term outcomes of very low birth weight infants in Korea: Korean Neonatal Network update in 2019
Jang Hoon Lee, YoungAh Youn, Yun Sil Chang; Korean Neonatal Network
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):284-290.   Published online February 5, 2020
The Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) has collected population-based data for very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) born in Korea since 2013. The survival rate of all VLBWIs was 86% in Korea. The overall prevalence of cerebral palsy was 6.2%–6.6%. Bilateral blindness and hearing loss were reported in 0.2%–0.3%, 0.8%–1.9%, respectively. The KNN has published annual reports and papers for facilitating the improvement of VLBWIs outcome in Korea.
Original Article
Allergy
Ten-year trends and prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population, 2008–2017
Jihyun Ha, Seung Won Lee, Dong Keon Yon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):278-283.   Published online January 29, 2020
Background: Major questions remain regarding the agestratified trends of allergic diseases and asthma in Korea.
Purpose: To identify the estimated recent prevalence and 10- year trends in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population from 2008 to 2017. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional survey (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) over 10 years (2008–2017) examined representative samples of the...
General Pediatrics
Efficacy of conservative treatment of perianal abscesses in children and predictors for therapeutic failure
Lars Boenicke, Johannes Doerner, Stefan Wirth, Hubert Zirngibl, Mike Ralf Langenbach
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):272-277.   Published online May 15, 2020
Background: The optimal management of perianal abscess in children is controversial.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of conservative treatment of perianal abscess in children and identify parameters that predict therapy failure. Methods: All cases of children younger than 14 years of age with perianal abscesses between 2001–2016 were evaluated. Results: Of the 113 enrolled patients, 64 underwent subsequent surgery for advanced disease (primary...
Immunology
Immunogenicity and safety of a 12-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants aged 6–10 weeks: a randomized double-blind active-controlled trial
Jonghoon Shin, Jamaree Teeratakulpisarn, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Tuangtip Theerawit, Ji Hwa Ryu, Jinhwan Shin, Seulgi Lee, Hayoung Lee, Kyungjun An, Hun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):265-271.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: The immunogenicity and safety of GBP411 when administered to healthy infants are not understood.
Finding: The intergroup differences were not significant for all 12 serotypes after the booster dose. The overall incidence of solicited local adverse events between the groups did not differ significantly.
Meaning: GBP411 with a 2p+1 dosing schedule induced a substantial immune response, and may be safe for administration to healthy infants.
Editorial
Allergy
Trends in prevalence of allergic diseases in Korean children: how and why?
Kyung Suk Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):263-264.   Published online April 13, 2020
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