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Review Article
Other
Knowledge-guided artificial intelligence technologies for decoding complex multiomics interactions in cells
Dohoon Lee, Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):239-249.   Published online November 26, 2021
· The need for data-driven modeling of multiomics interactions was recently highlighted.
· Many artificial intelligence-driven models have been developed, but only a few have incorporated biological domain knowledge within model architectures or training procedures.
· Here we provide a comprehensive review of deep learning models to decipher complex multiomics interactions regarding the biological guidance imposed upon them to facilitate further development of biological knowledge-guided deep learning models.
Cardiology
Implication of microRNA as a potential biomarker of myocarditis
Jin-Hee Oh, Gi Beom Kim, Heeyoung Seok
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):230-238.   Published online March 2, 2022
· Myocarditis was recently examined quantitatively as inflammation of the heart muscle based on endomyocardial biopsy, and its noninvasive diagnosis remains unsatisfactory.
· Additionally, numerous miRNAs (miR-155, miR-146b, miR-590, miR-221, miR-222, etc.) coupled with inflammation or viral activation have been examined in myocarditis patients or mouse models.
· The recent identification of mmu-miR-721 (has-miR-Chr8: 96), a myocarditis-specific microRNA, demonstrated its potential as an acute myocarditis biomarker.
Psychiatric/Psychology
Psychological aspects in children and parents of children with chronic kidney disease and their families
Alemsungla Aier, Priya Pais, Vijaya Raman
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):222-229.   Published online November 10, 2021
· Childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex and requires lifetime medical treatment.
· Children with CKD are at risk for emotional, behavioral, social, and academic difficulties that significantly affect their quality of life.
· Caring for children with CKD is stressful for families.
· These unique challenges are crucial and can negatively impact treatment outcomes.
· Awareness of and addressing these evolving psychosocial issues can foster their developing needs.
Infection
Four months of rifampicin monotherapy for latent tuberculosis infection in children
Chi Eun Oh, Dick Menzies
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):214-221.   Published online October 29, 2021
· Recently, the importance of a short-term treatment regimen including rifamycin has been highlighted in the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).
· Four prospective or retrospective studies in children consistently reported that a 4-month daily rifampicin regimen (4R) had a higher completion rate than and comparable safety to a nine-month daily isoniazid regimen.
· We suggest rifampicin 20–30 mg/kg/day for children aged 0–2 years and 15–20 mg/kg/day for children aged 2–10 years in 4R to treat LTBI.
Letter to the Editor
Other
Changes in air pollution and childhood respiratory viral infections in Korea post-COVID-19 outbreak
Hyung Kyu Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):211-213.   Published online February 17, 2022
Clinical note
General Pediatrics
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diabetic ketoacidosis post-COVID-19 in children
Neha Thakur, Narendra Rai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):209-210.   Published online November 30, 2021
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Early initiation of breastfeeding and factors associated with its delay among mothers at discharge from a single hospital
J. Jenifer Florence Mary, R. Sindhuri, A. Arul Kumaran, Amol R. Dongre
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):201-208.   Published online October 18, 2021
Background: According to the National Family Health Survey– 4, in India, 78.9% of deliveries occur in institutions, although only 42.6% of new mothers initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour of delivery.
Purpose: To estimate the proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) among new mothers at discharge from a tertiary care hospital and identify the determinants of delayed initiation of breastfeeding among...
Emergency Medicine
Nonfatal injuries in Korean children and adolescents, 2007–2018
Gyu Min Yeon, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):194-200.   Published online September 9, 2021
Question: How many children and adolescents have experienced nonfatal injuries in the previous year?
Finding: Among Korean children and adolescents, 8.1% experienced at least one injury per year. We found no significant change in the incidence of injuries over the previous 12 years.
Meaning: The incidence of injuries is higher than this estimation; therefore, more attention and effort are needed to prevent injuries among children and adolescents.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Comparison of minimally invasive surfactant therapy with intubation surfactant administration and extubation for treating preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized clinical trial
Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Behnaz Basiri, Maryam Shokouhi, Sajad Ghahremani, Ali Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):188-193.   Published online July 28, 2021
Question: Are the short-term outcomes of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) relatively superior to those of INtubation, SURfactant administration, and Extubation (INSURE) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)?
Finding: MIST could be an appropriate substitution for INSURE in preterm infants with RDS since it reduced hospitalization time and number of side effects.
Meaning: MIST is recommended for surfactant administration for its proven advantages over the INSURE technique.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Endocrinology
Genetic factors in precocious puberty
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):172-181.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Mutations in the kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) genes are associated with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).
· A few genes related to pubertal onset have been implicated in ICPP.
· Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and noncoding ribonucleic acids may be related to ICPP
Infection
Epidemiological changes in infectious diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea: a systematic review
Jong Gyun Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):167-171.   Published online November 30, 2021
· Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have had a major impact on the epidemiology of various infectious diseases in Korea.
· Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal viral diseases were significantly reduced during the NPI period.
· The decrease in Kawasaki disease after the introduction of NPI is an unintended result.
· Infectious diseases that decreased during NPI use may re-emerge.
· We must continuously monitor the epidemiology of various infectious diseases during the coronavirus era
Etiological and pathophysiological enigmas of severe coronavirus disease 2019, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and Kawasaki disease
Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):153-166.   Published online November 23, 2021
· Severe cases of coronavirus disease, Kawasaki disease (KD), and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) share similar findings: a protracted clinical course, multiorgan involvement, and similar activated biomarkers.
· Here we propose etiological agents in KD and MIS-C as species in the microbiota and introduce a common pathogenesis through the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.
· Early proper dose of corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin may help to reduce morbidity and mortality in these diseases.
Correspondence and Reply
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a meta-analysis
Hadith Rastad, Mahnaz Seifi Alan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):152-152.   Published online February 17, 2022
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