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Erratum
Choi Han-Woong: Comment on Cortisone therapy in pediatric fields (Soakwa 1958;1:19-23)
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(7):702.   Published online July 15, 2007
Kim Hyo-Kyu: Comment on treatment of asthma in children (Soakwa 1958;1:15-8)
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(6):594-595.   Published online June 15, 2007
Lim Eu-Seon: Comment on issues about poliomyelitis in Korea (Soakwa 1958;1:24-6)
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(6):592-593.   Published online June 15, 2007
A study of elementary school pupils using traditional herbal medicines
Young Joon Ahn
Accepted January 1, 1970  
Purpose : Traditional herbal medicines may be overused in Korea. Expenditures and inaccuracies of hospital prescription are increasing gradually. So we investigated the frequency and nature of herbal medicine use among elementary school pupils. Methods : We interviewed students of three elementary schools located in Gwangju with survey papers. We analyzed 905 returned surveys. Results : They consisted of 421 males...
Mechanical Ventilation of the Children
June Dong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(12):1310-1316.   Published online December 15, 2005
Mechanical ventilation in children has some differences compared to in neonates or in adults. The indication of mechanical ventilation can be classified into two groups, hypercapnic respiratory failure and hypoxemic respiratory failure. The strategies of mechanical ventilation should be different in these two groups. In hypercapnic respiratory failure, volume target ventilation with constant flow is favorable and pressure target ventilation...
Medical Lecture Course
New Nutritional Concepts of Vitamins and Minerals
Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(12):1295-1309.   Published online December 15, 2005
Nowadays, the nutritional deficits are rarely seen in Korea. However, an increased availability of the highly palatable energy dense, nutrient-poor foods increases the risks of obesity and deficits of vitamins and minerals in the general population. Also, optimum intake of vitamins and minerals, which varies with age and genetic back ground, might not suffice the poor, young, obese, and elderly...
Clinical Lecture
Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media and Otitis Media With Effusion
Seong Hee Jang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(12):1283-1294.   Published online December 15, 2005
The American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians developed the clinical practice guideline on the management of acute otitis media. The American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians, and American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery developed the clinical practice guideline on the diagnosis and management of otitis media with effusion. These two guidelines provide...
Infection and Innate Immunity
Moo-Young Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(11):1153-1161.   Published online November 15, 2005
As known by other name(natural immunity), the innate immune system comprises all those mechanisms for dealing with infection that are constitutive or built in, changing little with age or with experience of infection. Though in some ways less sophisticated than adaptive immunity, innate immunity should not belittled, since it has evidently protected thousands of species of invertebrates sufficiently to survive...
Airway Remodelling in Asthma
Dae Hyun Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1038-1049.   Published online October 15, 2005
Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that leads to tissue injury and subsequent structural changes collectively called airway remodelling. Characteristic changes of airway remodelling in asthma include goblet cell hyperplasia, deposition of collagens in the basement membrane, increased number and size of microvessels, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle, and hypertrophy of submucosal glands....
Can We Predict How Often Nephrotic Syndrome will Relapse into the Patients?
Mee Kyung Namgoong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1033-1037.   Published online October 15, 2005
Pediatric nephrotic syndrome is a well-known illness for its high relapsing rate. If we can predict the relapsing rate and the responses to the steroid therapy of individual patients with nephrotic syndrome, the predictability will be helpful in building a therapeutic plan. Here is my review of research articles on the risk factors for the prediction of relapsing nephrotic syndrome.
Medical Lecture Course
Epilepsy and Oxygen Free Radicals
Won Seop Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(9):920-923.   Published online September 15, 2005
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder from many molecular and biochemical responses. In the underlying mechanism, free radicals play an important role in seizure initiation and seizure-induced brain damage. Excessive production of oxygen free radicals and other radical species have been implicated in the development of seizures under pathological conditions and linked to seizure-induced neurodegeneration.
Clinical Lecture
Evidence Based Complementary Medicine
Sung-Jae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(9):915-919.   Published online September 15, 2005
The increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) in Korea as well as in U.S.A. and Europe seems to lead to a growing integration of CAM with conventional medicine. By using conventional mainstream medicine with CAM(integrative medicine) proved in efficacy and safety, integrative medicine seeks to treat the whole person, to assist the innate healing properties of each person and...
Medical Lecture Course
Endogenous Neurogenesis in Postnatal Brain
Yun Sil Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(8):806-812.   Published online August 15, 2005
Repair mechanisms in the postnatal and mature central nervous system(CNS) have long been thought to be very limited. However recent works have shown that the mature CSN contains neural progenitors, precursors, and stem cells that are capable of generating new neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes especially in germinative areas such as the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, the dentate gyrus...
Clinical Lecture
Hypothyroidism
Jong Duck Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(8):779-805.   Published online August 15, 2005
Hypothyroidism is a deficiency in thyroid hormone secretion by the thyroid gland and a defect in thyroid hormonal receptor activity. It is categorized by the two major forms in children, the one is congenital hypothyroidism and the other is acquired hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the commonest treatable causes of mental retardation and occurs in 1 in 3,000-4,000 infants...
Medical Lecture Course
Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics
Jae Sung Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(7):691-695.   Published online July 15, 2005
There is scientific evidence that administration of probiotics is effective in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in children and the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and nosocomial/ community acquired diarrhea. Probiotics prevent relapse of recurrent pouchitis and decrease the initial onset of pouchitis in ulcerative colitis. Probiotic organisms suppress growth of pathogens as well as their epithelial attachment and/or...
Clinical Lecture
Twins
Oh Kyung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(7):685-690.   Published online July 15, 2005
Recently, twinning rate increases in Korea since the early 1990s by delayed marriage and prevailing of assisted reproductive technology. But twin and higher-order multiples are at increased risk for perinatal and neonatal mortality over 5 fold despite of dramatic improvement of perinatal and neonatal care. Because twins are born more prematurely and have lower birth weights than singleton. In addition,...
Medical Lecture Course
Proliferative and Synthetic Responses of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma
Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(6):580-587.   Published online June 15, 2005
New evidence is emerging that airway smooth muscle(ASM) may act as an immunomodulatory cell by providing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, polypeptide growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, cell adhesion receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. ASM can promote the formation of the interstitial extracellular matrix, and potentially contribute to the alterations within the extracellular matrix in asthma. In addition, extracellular matrix components can...
Clinical Lecture
Common Urinary Symptoms in Outpatient Clinic - Voiding Dysfunction in Children -
Kee Hyuck Kim, Young Sig Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(6):575-579.   Published online June 15, 2005
Urinary incontinence is the most common urinary symptom in children and causes considerable anxiety in children and parents. In most cases, there is no underlying organic pathology and the long- term prognosis is excellent. Despite these reassuring facts, children with wetting problems can be a challenge for primary pediatrician. This is probably because the problem is poorly understood, there is...
Erratum
A Case of Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets, Type 1
Ji Hye Hur, Chong Guk Lee, Chung Wook Sur
Accepted January 1, 1970  
"Rickets" is the term applied to impaired mineralization at epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in deformity and impaired linear growth of long bones. Rickets may arise as a result of vitamin D deficiency or abnormality in metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent rickets(VDDR) is rare autosomal recessive disorder in which affected individuals have clinical features of vitamin D deficiency. In 1961, Prader first described...
Tacrolimus versus Cyclosporine Immunosuppression in Pediatric Renal Transplantation : Pharmacokinetic Consideration
Jung Sue Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(5):476-480.   Published online May 15, 2005
Immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric renal transplant recipients is changing consequence of the increasing number of available immunosuppressive agents. The optimal use of immunosuppressive agents requires a thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic characteristics, but the information on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these drugs in pediatric transplant recipients is still limited. In general, patients younger than 5 years old show higher clearance...
Clinical Lecture
The Effects of Postpartum Depression on the Development of Children
Esook Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(5):469-475.   Published online May 15, 2005
Mother-infant interaction is a crucial component of an infant's cognitive, emotional and behavioral development. Most people are preoccupied with fetal education, the physical conditions of the postpartum mother and baby, and emphasizing an early start in the child's education. However, the effects of a mother's postnatal emotional state on the development of the infant are often overlooked. Postpartum depression is...
Approach to the Children with Recurrent Infections
Jae Ho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(5):461-468.   Published online May 15, 2005
The major function of immune system is to protect infections. The immune systems are composed of innate and adaptive immunity. In adaptive immunity, the cellular and humoral components interact each other. Neonates and infants are infected frequently, because immune systems are naive and easy to expose to infectious agents. The complete history and physical examination is essential to evaluate the...
Medical Lecture Course
Constipation in Children
Jae Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(4):355-362.   Published online April 15, 2005
Constipation is very common phenomenon during childhood that accounts approximately 3% of general pediatric outpatient visits and up to 25% of visit to the pediatric gastroenterologist. The diagnosis of functional constipation is based on the historical features and absence of physical abnormalities. Most infants and children with chronic constipation require no diagnostic tests. Constipation and subsequent fecal retention behavior often...
Clinical Lecture
Clinical Approach to Headache in Childhood
Soo Ahn Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(4):349-354.   Published online April 15, 2005
Headache is a common complaint in pediatric office practices as well as in children presenting to emergency departments. Children who complain of headache usually are brought to medical attention by their parents, who seek reassurance that the headaches are not a sign of a serious illness. The etiologies of headache range from school problems to brain tumors. A history taking,...
Medical Lecture Course
CpG DNA for Treatment of Allergic Diseases
Sung Min Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(3):251-259.   Published online March 15, 2005
Atopy is a highly prevalent and serious health problem. The prevalence and severity of asthma and allergic diseases have increased over recent decades, particularly in industrialized nations. Early life infections may protect against the development of atopy and allergic diseases like asthma. The inverse relationship between the incidence of atopy and childhood infections has led to the 'hygiene hypothesis', which...
Clinical Lecture
Acute infectious Diarrhea in Pediatirc Patients
Sang Hyuk Ma
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(3):235-250.   Published online March 15, 2005
Acute diarrhea is one of the most common diseases that are seen in pediatric patients. In the management of acute diarrhea, several differential diagnostic criteria should be considered based on clinical and/or laboratory findings. These criteria include : ① normal variant stool versus diarrhea ② infectious versus non-infectious condition and ③ bacterial versus non-bacterial etiology. The use of antibiotics should...
Medical Lecture Course
Recent Advances in Regulating Energy Homeostasis and Obesity
Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):126-137.   Published online February 15, 2005
New insights in the complex metabolic pathways and its control mechanism for energy homeostasis have refined our understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity. It is now recognized that there are several additional regulatory mechanism such as peripheral signals including leptin, ghrelin, GLP-1 and PYY and cellular signals including uncoupling proteins and β Adrenergic receptors, which contribute to the regulation of...
Clinical Lecture
Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Anemia in Children
Young Tak Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):121-125.   Published online February 15, 2005
Anemia can be defined as a reduction in blood hemoglobin concentration or red cell mass relative to age matched normal values. Clinical presentation may range from obviously pale and lethargy to an incidental finding during screening of an otherwise well appearing child. The differential diagnosis of anemia in each instance is broad with numerous possible etiologies. A careful history and...
Medical Lecture Course
Helper T Cell Polarizing Through Dendritic Cells
Manyong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(1):6-12.   Published online January 15, 2005
In the last few years, a spectrum of dendritic cells(DCs), including toll like receptors(TLRs), might play a critical role in regulating allergy and asthma. DC plays a central role in initiating immune responses, linking innate and adaptive responses to pathogen. Human peripheral blood has three non- overlapping dendritic subset that expressed various 11 TLRs. These dendritic subsets and TLR contribute...
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