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Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: an immunological concept
Seong Heon Kim, Se Jin Park, Kyoung Hee Han, Andreas Kronbichler, Moin A. Saleem, Jun Oh, Beom Jin Lim, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):205-211.   Published online May 31, 2016

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common form of INS in children. The pathogenesis of MCNS still remains unclear, however, several hypotheses have been recently proposed. For several decades, MCNS has been considered a T-cell disorder, which causes the impairment of the glomerular filtration barrier...

Case Report
Two Cases of Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy presented with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome
Young Mee Seo, Jae Gul Chung, En Sil Yu, Jin Yeong Jeong, Young Seo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(7):978-982.   Published online July 15, 2000
Thin basement membrane nephropathy(TBMN) is defined histologically as follows : 1) By light microscopy only minor abnormalities are detected in the glomeruli at most minor mesangial widening. 2) By electron microscopy, diffuse thinning of glomerular basement membrane is demonstrated. 3) By immunofluorescence, absence of immunoglobulins and complement components is demonstrated. 4) Alport`s syndrome and systemic diseases that may affect the...
Original Article
Long-term Follow-up Study of Children with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome
Jung Sue Kim, Hae Il Cheong, Hyun Soon Lee, Yong Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(12):1675-1684.   Published online December 15, 1998
Purpose : Most of childhood MCNS has a long disease course with frequent relapses. This study was designed to analyze the long-term clinical course of childhood MCNS, focusing at relapsing pattern, treatment response and complications. Mothods : The medical records of 137 children with biopsy-proven MCNS observed during 1976 ti 1996 were analyzed retrospectively. They were classified as initial responders(111 patients,...
Effect of Steroid Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Children with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome
Byeong Hee Son, Woo Yeong Chung, Chul Ho Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(6):822-828.   Published online June 15, 1996
Purpose : Osteoporosis and growth failure have been known one of the serious side effects of corticosteroid therapy especially in children. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term administration of steroids on bone mineral density(BMD) in children with nephrotic syndrome and its relationship to cumulative steroid dose, the duration of the rapy and sex. Methods : The BMD of...
Case Report
A Case of Spontaneously Remitted Congenital Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome
Tae Sun Ha, Kyung Hee Lee, Beom Soo Park, Heon Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(9):1288-1292.   Published online September 15, 1995
Nephrotic syndrome is a condition with severe proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. When the syndrome develops within the first 3 months of life, it is generally considered as congenital and the overall outcome in this group seems to be worse than in miniaml change lesion that occurs at an older age regardless of the pathologic findings. A female infant with congenital nephrotic...
Original Article
Cyclosporin A Treatment of Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Ik Jun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(12):1740-1746.   Published online December 15, 1993
In this study I assesed the efficacy and tolerance of cyclosporin A (CyA) in the treatment of steroid-dependent MCNS (minimal change nephrotic cyndrome) and steroid resistant FSGS (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). The results showed, that 1) CyA was effective in sustaining a remission in steroid-dependent MCNS without prednisone treatment, and therefore, could be an alternative therapeutic choice. 2) After discontinuation of CyA, relapses reccurred...
Studies on the Prognostic Marker in Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome
Byoung-Soo Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(7):906-912.   Published online July 15, 1993
Childhood minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is often associated with hyper-sensitivity reactions and considered to be caused by immune dysfunction. The elevated serum IgE levels and atopic symptoms have been frequently associated in these patients. The present therapy for MCNS mainly depends on corticosteroids, alkylating agents such as chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and cyclosporin A (Cy-A). Howerver, frequent relapses and severe side effects...
Selectivity Index of Proteinuria in Childhood Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome.
Cheol Ho Lee, Young Seo Park, Kwang Wook Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(10):1384-1390.   Published online October 31, 1989
The selectivity indices (S.I.) of proteinuria in 120 biopsy proven minimal change nephrotic syn- drome (MCNS) children who were admitted to Seoul National University Childern’s Hospital from January 1976 to June 1988 and followed up for more than 1 year from onset of disease, were analyzed in relation to clinical findings, histopathologic features and steroid responsiveness. The results were as follows: 1) The mean age at...
Serum IgE Level in Patients with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome.
Sung Oh Kim, Hee Jung Ahn, Seong Ho Kim, Woo Gill Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(6):789-796.   Published online June 30, 1989
It has been reported that many patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome(MCNS) have high serum IgE level, but its significance has not been disclosed yet. In this study, serum levels of IgE were evaluated in different stages of the disease with or without treatment in 26 MCNS(proven by renal biopsy) patients admitted to the Department of Pediatrics Hanyang University Hospital from January, 1980 to...
A Study on Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome in Children.
Yong Choi, Hong Jin Lee, Hae Il Cheong, Kwang Wook Ko, Hyun Soon Lee, Yong Il Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1988;31(2):220-226.   Published online February 28, 1988
To assess the clinical significance of histopathologic variants of minimal change nephrotic syn- drome (MCNS) by light microscopic findings, 148 biopsy proven MCNS patients, who were admitted to Seoul National University Hospital between the period from January 1976 to December 1986, were analyzed according to clinical findings, steroid responsiveness, and follow up status in relation to the pathologic variants. The followings are summary and conclusion. 1) Significantly...
A Retrospective Study on the Effect of Cyclophosphamide in Children with Minmal Change Nephrotic Syndrome.
Il Soo Ha, Kwang Wook Ko, Yong Il Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1987;30(2):158-174.   Published online February 28, 1987
Thirty one children associated with biopsy-proven minimal change nephrotic syndrome with frequent relapse, were placed on cyclophosphamide, and its effect was analyzed. Cyclophosphamide was given with the dosage of 2.46±0.42 mg/kg/day for 58±7 days along with the alternate day corticosteroid. Sixty three percent of the patients showed complete remission and twenty seven percent of the patients resulted in partial remission after the treatment. Those...
Case Report
Rifampin Induced Nonresponsiveness to Steroid Therapy in Children with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome .
Hae Il Cheong, Sang Bok Suk, Yong Choi, Kwang Wook Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1984;27(5):506-510.   Published online May 31, 1984
We experienced three children with the biopsy proven minimal change nephrotic syndrome who had failed to respond to prednisolone, 60 mg/m2/d for 4 to 9 weeks due to concomittent administration of rifampin. Because rifampin is a known enzyme inducer of the liver like phenobarbital and dilantin which can increase the clearance of the other drugs such as steroid etc., rifampin were...
Original Article
Lipoprotein Profiles in Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome.
Yong Choi, Heui Jeen Kim, Hae Il Cheong, Jeong Kee Seo, Kwang Wook Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1983;26(3):237-246.   Published online March 31, 1983
Data obtained from 59 hospitalized patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome which was confirmed by kidney biopsy, were analyzed for serum albumin, serum lipids, 24hr urine protein, creatinine clearanee, HDL-eholesterol. In 38 of the patients, lipoproteins were analyzed. The following results were obained 1. Serum phospolipid (PL) was increased whenever serum total cholesterol (TC) was increased but to a lesser degree. The ratio of TC/PL were...
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