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Review Article
Infection
Therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in children and adolescents
Soo-Han Choi, Jae Hong Choi, Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):377-386.   Published online June 27, 2022
· Children and adolescents with high risks for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should be identified and proper treatment should be provided promptly according to the patient’s condition.
· Remdesivir can be considered for pediatric patients of all ages with COVID-19 who have an emergent or increase in supplemental oxygen.
· The use of corticosteroids is not recommended for patients with nonsevere COVID-19. Corticosteroids are recommended in children and adolescents with severe and critical COVID-19.
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis
Siyoung Choe, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Deokjin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):98-107.   Published online November 23, 2021
Question: What is the overall effect of obesity interventions among Korean children and what affects their effectiveness?
Finding: Interventions were strongly favored over controls. Interventions including at least one physical activity component were significantly better than those that did not. Sex, age, baseline weight category, intervention duration, and the number of intervention components were not significant.
Meaning: Future obesity interventions for Korean children must seek to include physical activity components.
Emergency Medicine
Nonfatal injuries in Korean children and adolescents, 2007–2018
Gyu Min Yeon, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):194-200.   Published online September 9, 2021
Question: How many children and adolescents have experienced nonfatal injuries in the previous year?
Finding: Among Korean children and adolescents, 8.1% experienced at least one injury per year. We found no significant change in the incidence of injuries over the previous 12 years.
Meaning: The incidence of injuries is higher than this estimation; therefore, more attention and effort are needed to prevent injuries among children and adolescents.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Endocrine comorbidities of pediatric obesity
Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):619-627.   Published online August 26, 2021
∙ Pediatric obesity can involve endocrine comorbidities such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and central precocious puberty.
∙ Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10–19 years had a prevalence of 25.9% and 0.6% in 2013–2014, respectively.
∙ Dyslipidemia in Korean adolescents aged 10–18 years had a prevalence of 7.64% (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL), 6.09% (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL), 8.69% (triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL), and 12.52% (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL) in 2007–2018.
∙ Metabolic syndrome in Korean youth has a prevalence of 1.9%–14.7% in males and 1.7%–12.6% in females with wide variation in definitions.
∙ Appropriate comorbidity screening and management and/or specialist referral are necessary for obese children and adolescents.
Nutrition
Dietary intake and nutritional status of Korean children and adolescents: a review of national survey data
Minji Kang, So Yoon Choi, Minyoung Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):443-458.   Published online December 28, 2020
In Korea, several national cross-sectional surveys monitor the diet, nutritional status, and health status of children. This continual dedicated national surveillance system contributes to the identification of nutritional and health issues, establishment of public health policies, and development of nutrition recommendations. This paper provides recent information about the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Korean Youth Risk...
Guideline
Endocrinology
2017 Clinical practice guidelines for dyslipidemia of Korean children and adolescents
Jung Sub Lim, Eun Young Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Jae-Ho Yoo, Kyung Hee Yi, Hyun Wook Chae, Jin-Ho Choi, Ji Young Kim, Il Tae Hwang; the Committee of Dyslipidemia of Korean Children and Adolescents on behalf of Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology (KSPE)
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):454-462.   Published online November 25, 2020
Question: How are children and adolescents with dyslipidemia treated and managed in Korea?
Finding: 2017 guidelines recommend to measure nonfasting non-HDL-C as a screening test and introduce new diet methods: Cardiovascular Health Integrated Lifestyle Diet (CHILD)-1, CHILD-2-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CHILD-2-triglyceride. Statin is the only drug approved in children older than 10 years.
Meaning: New clinical practice guidelines for treating and managing dyslipidemia of Korean children and adolescents are provided.
Original Article
Hematology
Changes in the prevalence of anemia in Korean adolescents, 1998–2018
Jun Young An, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):86-92.   Published online November 16, 2020
Question: Over the past 21 years, has the prevalence of anemia decreased among Korean adolescents?
Finding: The prevalence of anemia in boys aged 10–18 years decreased from 3.0% to 0.5% over the study period, whereas that in girls did not change significantly over time (increased from 7.9% to 8.5%).
Meaning: The prevalence of anemia in female adolescents remains high, requiring attention and efforts to improve it.
Review Article
Gastroenterology
Changing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents
Ji Sook Park, Jin Su Jun, Ji-Hyun Seo, Hee-Shang Youn, Kwang-Ho Rhee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):21-25.   Published online July 15, 2020
Although Helicobacter pylori infection rate in children is unclear due to diversity and limitation of diagnostic tests unlike in adults, investigation the childhood prevalence is important for predicting H. pylori-related diseases in the future.
H. pylori infection occurred in early childhood, and declined during 30 years in our study.
Change in risk factors of H. pylori transmission and consensus for eradication therapy in children might further reduce the infection rate.
Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society, 2018
Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Taek-Jin Lee, Jina Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Hye-Kyung Cho, Eun Young Cho, Jong-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(7):252-256.   Published online July 15, 2019
The Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger in the 9th (2018) edition of Immunization guideline. This report provides the revised recommendations made by the committee and summarizes several changes from the 2015 guideline. National immunization program (NIP) launched a human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for girls...
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean children and adolescents: analysis based on the 2016–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jung Hyun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):317-323.   Published online June 24, 2019

Purpose: Investigating the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in Korean children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey used data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2017); 1,256 males and females aged 10–18 years were included. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid levels were >6.6 mg/dL at...
Endocrinology
Prevalence and associates of obesity and overweight among school-age children in a rural community of Thailand
Teechaya Nonboonyawat, Wuttipat Pusanasuwannasri, Nattanon Chanrat, Natta Wongthanavimok, Danutanut Tubngern, Piengkwan Panutrakul, Mathirut Mungthin, Thirapa Nivesvivat, Panadda Hatthachote, Ram Rangsin, Phunlerd Piyaraj
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):179-186.   Published online February 8, 2019

Purpose: Information about overweight and obesity among students in rural areas of Thailand is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine overweight and obesity prevalences and associated factors among school-aged children in a rural community of Thailand. Methods: We selected 9 public schools through cluster sampling in 2 provinces located in central Thailand in 2016. Anthropometric measurements were measured using standard techniques,...
Secular change in waist circumference and waist-height ratio and optimal cutoff of waist-height ratio for abdominal obesity among Korean children and adolescents over 10 years
Min Sub Kim, Se Young Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(7):261-268.   Published online December 3, 2018

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the time trends of waist circumference (WC) and waist-height ratio (WHR), and to present WC and WHR distributions with optimal WHR cutoff for abdominal obesity in Korean children and adolescents. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of data from 13,257 children and adolescents (6,987 boys and 6,270 girls) aged 6–18 years who were included...
Adolescence Medicine
Serum alanine aminotransferase levels are closely associated with metabolic disturbances in apparently healthy young adolescents independent of obesity
Ki Eun Kim, Kyung Suk Baek, Sol Han, Jung Hyun Kim, Youn Ho Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(2):48-54.   Published online November 23, 2018

Purpose: Liver metabolism plays a pivotal role in the development of metabolic disorders. We aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory risk factors associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in young adolescents from an urban population in Korea. Methods: A population of 120 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12–13 years was included in the cross-sectional design study; 58 were overweight or obese...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Renal involvement in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease
Hea Min Jang, Hee Sun Baek, Jung-Eun Kim, Ju Young Kim, Yeon Hee Lee, Hee Yeon Cho, Yon Ho Choe, Ben Kang, Byung-Ho Choe, Bong Seok Choi, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(10):327-331.   Published online September 12, 2018

Purpose: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly increasing, and several reports have described the renal complications of IBD. We sought to evaluate the clinical manifestations of renal complications in children with IBD in order to enable early detection and prompt treatment of the complications. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 456 children and adolescents aged <20...
Review Article
General Pediatrics
The 2017 Korean National Growth Charts for children and adolescents: development, improvement, and prospects
Jae Hyun Kim, Sungha Yun, Seung-sik Hwang, Jung Ok Shim, Hyun Wook Chae, Yeoun Joo Lee, Ji Hyuk Lee, Soon Chul Kim, Dohee Lim, Sei Won Yang, Kyungwon Oh, Jin Soo Moon; for the Committee for the Development of Growth Standards for Korean Children and Adolescents, the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Korean Pediatric Society, and Division of Health and Nutrition Survey; Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):135-149.   Published online May 28, 2018

Growth charts are curves or tables that facilitate the visualization of anthropometric parameters, and are widely used as an important indicator when evaluating the growth status of children and adolescents. The latest version of the Korean National Growth Charts released in 2007 has raised concerns regarding the inclusion of data from both breastfed and formula-fed infants, higher body mass index...

Original Article
Endocrinology
The association of total blood mercury levels and overweight among Korean adolescents: analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2013
Yi-Yeon Shin, In-Kyung Ryu, Mi-Jung Park, Shin-Hye Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):121-128.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

Obesity has been associated with higher total blood mercury levels, based on animal studies; however, studies that focus on children and adolescents are lacking. We aimed to assess the association between total blood mercury levels and the incidence of overweight and abdominal obesity in Korean adolescents.

Methods

The study population comprised 1,567 adolescents (793 boys and 774 girls; aged 10–19 years), who...

Cardiology
Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia in children and adolescents: a single center experience
Myung Chul Hyun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):390-394.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) is less common in pediatric patients than in adult patients. Thus, data for pediatric AVNRT patients are insufficient. Hence, we aimed to analyze the patient characteristics, treatment, and any recurrences in pediatric AVNRT patients.

Methods

We reviewed the records of 50 pediatric AVNRT patients who had undergone radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) between January 1998 and December 2016...

General Pediatrics
The correlation of depression with Internet use and body image in Korean adolescents
Chang Hoon Lim, Eun Ji Kim, Jong Hyun Kim, Jue Seong Lee, Yoon Lee, Sang Hee Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(1):17-23.   Published online January 24, 2017
Purpose

To examine the correlation of depression with Internet use and body image perception, and to analyze the risk factors of depression in a total of 920 students in Seoul, Korea.

Methods

Students were recruited by contacting school principals and teachers and were encouraged to fill out a self-report questionnaire designed specifically for this study in July of 2008.

Results

Female participants had an increased...

Review Article
Infection
Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: Immunization Guideline (8th edition) released by the Korean Pediatric Society in 2015
Jong-Hyun Kim, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Jina Lee, Soo-Young Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(12):461-465.   Published online December 31, 2016

This report includes the recommended immunization schedule table for children and adolescents based on the 8th (2015) and revised 7th (2012) Immunization Guidelines released by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society (KPS). Notable revised recommendations include: reorganization of the immunization table with a list of vaccines on the vertical axis and the corresponding age on the...

Case Report
Neurology
Painful legs and moving toes syndrome in a 16-year-old girl
Seung Soo Kim, Yong Seung Hwang, Young Chang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(9):381-383.   Published online September 21, 2016

Painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome is characterized by spontaneous movements of the digits and pain in one or both lower extremities. Of the reported cases, a majority of the patients was female, and the mean age of onset was 58 years. Only one pediatric case has been reported so far. Herein, we report the first adolescent case of...

Original Article
Endocrinology
Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein plasma levels as a biomarker of obesity-related insulin resistance in adolescents
Ki Eun Kim, Young Sun Cho, Kyung Suk Baek, Lan Li, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Jung Hyun Kim, Ho-Seong Kim, Youn Ho Sheen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):231-238.   Published online May 31, 2016
Purpose

Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is a 65-kDa acute phase protein, derived from the liver, which is present in high concentrations in plasma. Data regarding the association between circulating plasma LBP levels and obesity-related biomarkers in the pediatric population are scarce. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in plasma LBP levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess...

Emergency Medicine
A nationwide study of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency Department in South Korea in 2012
Chang Hyu Lee, Youn Kyoung Won, Eui-Jung Roh, Dong In Suh, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(3):132-138.   Published online March 31, 2016
Purpose

Acute respiratory infection, particularly pneumonia, is the most common cause of hospitalization and death among children in developing nations. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency Department (ED) in South Korea in 2012.

Methods

We analyzed National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) records from 146 EDs in South Korea for all pediatric patients...

General Pediatrics
Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among Korean adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013
Min-Gyu Choi, Mi-Jung Park, Shin-Hye Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(3):114-119.   Published online March 31, 2016
Purpose

This study aimed to assess the reference values and factors influencing blood lead levels among Korean adolescents.

Methods

The study population consisted of 1,585 adolescents (801 males, 784 females; aged 10-19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed blood lead concentrations in relation to demographic/lifestyle characteristics for all participants. "Reference values" of blood lead...

Endocrinology
Impact of lifestyle factors on trends in lipid profiles among Korean adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys study, 1998 and 2010
Shin-Hye Kim, Young-Hwan Song, Sangshin Park, Mi-Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(2):65-73.   Published online February 29, 2016
Purpose

Only a few studies have explored nationwide trends in lipid profiles among Asian adolescents. We aimed to assess trends in lipid profiles and the associated lifestyle factors among Korean children.

Methods

We analyzed data for 2,094 adolescents who were aged 10–18 years and had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998 and 2010.

Results

During 1998–2010, the prevalence of...

Case Report
Infection
Tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adolescent diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction
Ju-Hee Seo, Jun Ah Lee, Dong Ho Kim, Joongbum Cho, Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):43-46.   Published online January 22, 2016

We present a case of tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a 14-year-old girl. The patient presented with weight loss, malaise, fatigue, prolonged fever, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Laboratory investigation revealed pancytopenia (white blood cells, 2,020 cells/µL; hemoglobin, 10.2 g/dL; platelets, 52,000 cells/µL), hypertriglyceridemia (229 mg/dL), and hyperferritinemia (1,420 ng/mL). Bone marrow biopsy showed a hypocellular bone marrow with a large numbers of...

Original Article
Analysis of clinical characteristics and causes of chest pain in children and adolescents
Ji Hye Chun, Tae Hyeong Kim, Mi Young Han, Na Yeon Kim, Kyung Lim Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):440-445.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

Chest pain is common in children and adolescents and is a reason for referral to pediatric cardiologists. Although most cases of chest pain in these age groups are benign and do not require treatment, timely diagnosis is important not to miss life-threatening diseases requiring prompt treatment. We investigated certain clinical characteristics that may be useful in the diagnosis of such...

Review Article
Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents with acquired severe aplastic anemia
Ho Joon Im, Kyung-Nam Koh, Jong Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):199-205.   Published online June 22, 2015

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening disorder for which allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the current available curative treatment. HSCT from matched sibling donors (MSDs) is the preferred therapy for children with acquired SAA. For patients who lack MSDs, immunosuppressive therapy (IST) is widely accepted as a first-line treatment before considering HCT from an unrelated donor (URD)....

Original Article
Association between serum alanine aminotransferase level and obesity indices in Korean adolescents
Moon Bae Ahn, Woo Ri Bae, Kyung Do Han, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, Min Ho Jung, Byung Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(5):165-171.   Published online May 22, 2015
Purpose

To analyze the correlation between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and obesity indices including body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), total fat mass (FM), truncal fat mass (TFM), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in Korean adolescents.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study based on data derived from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). Subjects were...

Review Article
Osteosarcoma in Korean children and adolescents
Jun Ah Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(4):123-128.   Published online April 22, 2015

Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Advances in combination chemotherapy and surgical technique have greatly improved the survival of patients with osteosarcoma. In Korea, improvements in osteosarcoma treatment have been made over the past two decades. The 5-year event-free survival rate of Korean children and adolescents with localized disease is 64.6%, comparable to that of American or European...

Original Article
Associations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, and their inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, with obesity-related biomarkers in apparently healthy adolescent boys
Youn Ho Shin, Ki Eun Kim, Yong-Jae Lee, Jae-Hwan Nam, Young Mi Hong, Hye-Jung Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(12):526-532.   Published online December 31, 2014
Purpose

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in atherosclerosis, and therefore, are considered risk factors for metabolic dysfunction in adults. However, there is little data on circulating levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) with regard to obesity-related biomarkers in the general adolescent population. In the present study, we determined the associations of MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels and...

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