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Original Article
Hematology
Changes in the prevalence of anemia in Korean adolescents, 1998–2018
Jun Young An, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):86-92.   Published online November 16, 2020
Question: Over the past 21 years, has the prevalence of anemia decreased among Korean adolescents?
Finding: The prevalence of anemia in boys aged 10–18 years decreased from 3.0% to 0.5% over the study period, whereas that in girls did not change significantly over time (increased from 7.9% to 8.5%).
Meaning: The prevalence of anemia in female adolescents remains high, requiring attention and efforts to improve it.
Cardiology
Iron deficiency anemia as a predictor of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease
Sohyun Kim, Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):301-306.   Published online February 8, 2019

Purpose: Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) are the most important complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a prevalent micronutrient deficiency and its association with KD remains unknown. We hypothesized that presence of IDA could be a predictor of CAA. Methods: This retrospective study included 173 KD patients, divided into 2 groups according to absence (group 1) and presence...
Gastroenterology
The role of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the absorption of iron preparations in children with iron deficiency anemia
Jeanette Manoppo, Hilda Tasiringan, Audrey Wahani, Adrian Umboh, Max Mantik
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):173-178.   Published online January 25, 2019

Purpose: To determine whether Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 plays a role in absorption of iron preparations given to children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods: We performed a quasi-experimental study involving pre- and postintervention tests using a control group in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia, between July and September 2017. We conducted a single-blind controlled trial that included primary school children who...
Case Report
Cardiology
A 2-month-old boy with hemolytic anemia and reticulocytopenia following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for Kawasaki disease: a case report and literature review
Na Yeon Kim, Joon Hwan Kim, Jin Suk Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Yeon Kyung Cho, Dong Hyun Cha, Ki Eun Kim, Myung Suh Kang, Kyung Ah Lim, Youn Ho Sheen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S60-S63.   Published online November 30, 2016

Herein, we report a rare case of hemolytic anemia with reticulocytopenia following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a young infant treated for Kawasaki disease. A 2-month-old boy presented with fever lasting 3 days, conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue, erythematous edema of the hands, and macular rash, symptoms and signs suggestive of incomplete Kawasaki disease. His fever resolved 8 days after treatment with...

Original Article
Cardiology
Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: a case control study using speckle tracking echocardiography
Beom Joon Kim, Kyung Pil Moon, Ji-Hong Yoon, Eun-Jung Lee, Jae Young Lee, Seong Koo Kim, Jae Wook Lee, Nack Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Hack Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(4):190-195.   Published online April 30, 2016
Purpose

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA), a fatal disease, requires multiple transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, and finally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as the definitive treatment. We hypothesized that iron overloading associated with multiple transfusions and HSCTrelated complications may adversely affect cardiac function. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed in children after HSCT for SAA.

Methods

Forty-six consecutive patients with a median age of 9.8...

Case Report
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Therapy for a Jehovah's Witness Child With Severe Anemia due to Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
Da Eun Woo, Jae Min Lee, Yu Kyung Kim, Yong Hoon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(2):100-103.   Published online February 29, 2016

Patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) can rapidly develop profound anemia as the disease progresses, as a consequence of red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis and inadequate erythropoietin synthesis. Therefore, RBC transfusion should be considered in HUS patients with severe anemia to avoid cardiac or pulmonary complications. Most patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses refuse blood transfusion, even in the face of life-threatening...

Original Article
Iron and vitamin D status in breastfed infants and their mothers
Yu Sun Kang, Joon Hwan Kim, Eun Hee Ahn, Eun-Gyong Yoo, Moon Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):283-287.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

We assessed the relationships between iron and vitamin D statuses in breastfed infants and their mothers and evaluated the determinants of iron and vitamin D deficiencies in breastfed infants.

Methods

Seventy breastfed infants aged 4-24 months and their mothers participated in this study from February 2012 to May 2013. Complete blood counts, total iron binding capacity, and levels of C-reactive protein, iron,...

Case Report
Graves disease following rabbit antithymocyte globulin treatment of severe aplastic anemia in a Korean child
In Su Choi, Han Kyul Kim, Dong Kyun Han, Hee Jo Baek, Hae In Jang, Chan Jong Kim, Hoon Kook
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(7):267-269.   Published online July 22, 2015

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is used as an immunosuppressive treatment (IST) to deplete clonal suppressor T cells in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The depletion of suppressor T cells by ATG may affect the activation of B cells, which results in an increased risk for autoimmune conditions. A 12-year-old boy was diagnosed with idiopathic SAA. As he did not have...

Review Article
Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents with acquired severe aplastic anemia
Ho Joon Im, Kyung-Nam Koh, Jong Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):199-205.   Published online June 22, 2015

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening disorder for which allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the current available curative treatment. HSCT from matched sibling donors (MSDs) is the preferred therapy for children with acquired SAA. For patients who lack MSDs, immunosuppressive therapy (IST) is widely accepted as a first-line treatment before considering HCT from an unrelated donor (URD)....

Original Article
The usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children
Se Hoon Yoon, Dong Sup Kim, Seung Taek Yu, Sae Ron Shin, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):15-19.   Published online January 31, 2015
Purpose

Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a truncated extracellular form of the membrane transferrin receptor produced by proteolysis. Concentrations of serum sTfR are related to iron status and erythropoiesis in the body. We investigated whether serum sTfR levels can aid in diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children.

Methods

Ninety-eight patients with IDA were enrolled and were classified according to...

Review Article
Current insights into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes
Nack-Gyun Chung, Myungshin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(8):337-344.   Published online August 25, 2014

Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) encompasses a heterogeneous and complex group of genetic disorders characterized by physical malformations, insufficient blood cell production, and increased risk of malignancies. They often have substantial phenotype overlap, and therefore, genotyping is often a critical means of establishing a diagnosis. Current advances in the field of IBMFSs have identified multiple genes associated with IBMFSs...

Original Article
Long-term follow-up of Fanconi anemia: clinical manifestation and treatment outcome
Byung Gyu Yoon, Hee Na Kim, Ui Joung Han, Hae In Jang, Dong Kyun Han, Hee Jo Baek, Tai Ju Hwang, Hoon Kook
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(3):125-134.   Published online March 31, 2014
Purpose

The aim of this study was to characterize Korean patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which is a rare but very challenging genetic disease.

Methods

The medical records of 12 FA patients diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results

The median age at diagnosis was 6.2 years. All patients showed evidence of marrow failure and one or more...

Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in children with iron deficiency anemia
Jung Won Yoon, Sung Woo Kim, Eun Gyong Yoo, Moon Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(6):206-211.   Published online June 21, 2012
Purpose

The increasing prevalence of breast feeding has led to concerns about vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We evaluated the prevalence of VDD in a population of Korean children with IDA and assessed the risk factors for VDD in these children.

Methods

A total of 79 children who were diagnosed with IDA were prospectively surveyed from April...

Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age
Ji Hyun Yoon, Cheong Soo Park, Ji Young Seo, Yun Sun Choi, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(7):298-303.   Published online July 31, 2011
Purpose

To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA).

Methods

A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels.

Results

In total, 120 children were in the...

Review Article
Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses
Jin Soo Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(7):282-286.   Published online July 31, 2011

Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to...

Case Report
A case of anemia caused by combined vitamin B12 and iron deficiency manifesting as short stature and delayed puberty
Seung Min Song, Keun Wook Bae, Hoi-Soo Yoon, Ho Joon Im, Jong-Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(5):661-665.   Published online May 31, 2010

Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from inadequate dietary intake is rare in children in the modern era because of improvements in nutritional status. However, such anemia can be caused by decreased ingestion or impaired absorption and/or utilization of vitamin B12. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with short stature, prepubertal sexual maturation, exertional dyspnea, and severe...

Original Article
Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants
Youn Soo Jun, Ho Il Bang, Seung Taek Yu, Sae Ron Shin, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):392-396.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to...
Case Report
Perianastomotic ulceration presenting with long-term iron deficiency anemia and growth failure: A case report and review of the literature
Kyung Ji Kang, Eun Ha Kim, Eun Young Jung, Woo-Hyun Park, Yu-Na Kang, Ae Suk Kim, Jin-Bok Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(1):89-92.   Published online January 15, 2010
Perianastomotic ulceration (PAU) rarely occurs after small bowel resection in infancy. Since the understanding of its pathogenesis is incomplete, an effective method of treatment has not yet been discovered. We report the first case in Korea of a 10-year-old girl with chronic iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and growth failure who was diagnosed with PAU at colonoscopy. Seven years were required...
Review Article
Treatment of chronic kidney disease in children
Joo Hoon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(10):1061-1068.   Published online October 15, 2009
The treatment of pediatric patients with chronic renal disease comprises management of nutritional imbalance, fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disturbances, mineral bone disease, anemia, hypertension, and growth retardation. The treatment also includes administration of appropriate renal replacement therapy, if required. Adequate dietary intake of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and caloric intake must be encouraged in such patients to ensure proper growth...
Original Article
A study on the incidence of anemia according to feeding patterns and the status of weaning diet
Hyun Ji Kim, Mee Yong Shin, Sung Shin Kim, Jae Ock Park, Chang Hwi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(8):875-880.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:Iron-deficiency anemia remains the most common nutritional deficiency in young infants. This study aimed to survey the actual condition of feeding patterns and weaning diet and to study the association between these factors and the prevalence of anemia in infants aged over 9 months. Methods:We studied 171 infants aged 9-24 months who were hospitalized in the general ward with mild to moderate acute illnesses....
Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and children
Meong Hi Son, Jung Suk Yeom, Ji Suk Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji Hyun Seo, Jae Young Lim, Chan Hoo Park, Hyang Ok Woo, Hee Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(5):544-548.   Published online May 15, 2009
Purpose : To elucidate a potential association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants and children in terms of the other factors related to iron utilization and storage although the association of ferritin was previously studied. Methods : We evaluated 135 infants (aged 6-24 months) admitted at Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 2000 to 2006. Western blot...
Weaning food practice in children with iron deficiency anemia
Joo Hee Chang, Woo Sik Cheong, Yong Hoon Jun, Soon Ki Kim, Hung Sik Kim, Sang Kyu Park, Kyung Ha Ryu, Eun Sun Yoo, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Kun soo Lee, Kwang Chul Lee, Jae Young Lim, Du Young Choi, Byung Kyu Choe, Eun Jin Choi, Bong Soon Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):159-166.   Published online February 15, 2009
Purpose : Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in children on a weaning diet. We investigated weaning practices in infants and children, as well as their mothers' knowledge about weaning. Methods : We investigated 129 children with IDA and 166 without IDA (aged 6-36 months) who had visited 10 university hospitals between March 2006...
Case Report
A case of restless legs syndrome in a child presenting with growing pains
Dong Soon Kim, Hong Beom Shin, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(11):1222-1227.   Published online November 15, 2008
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sleep disorder in adults characterized by the following diagnostic criteria: an urge to move that is usually associated with unpleasant sensations and symptoms that are worse at rest, relieved by movement, and most severe at night. The definite diagnosis of RLS in children is stricter and consists of self-description of leg discomfort...
Original Article
Diamond-Blackfan anemia: long-term follow-up of six cases
Young Jun Son, Hee Jo Baek, Hoon Kook
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(11):1211-1216.   Published online November 15, 2008
Purpose : Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare heterogeneous genetic disorder of infancy and early childhood. It is characterized by red cell aplasia, congenital anomalies, and a predisposition to cancer. Corticosteroids and red cell transfusions are the mainstays of therapy. We describe our experience of 6 cases of DBA that were encountered over a period of 16 years. Methods :...
Reticulocyte hemoglobin content for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in young children with acute infection
Jon Soo Kim, Jun Seok Choi, Doo Young Choi, Chur Woo You
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):827-833.   Published online August 15, 2008
Purpose : Early identification of iron deficiency in young children is essential to prevent damaging long-term consequences. It is often difficult for the pediatrician to know which indices should be used when diagnosing these conditions especially in hospitalized young children. This study investigated the clinical significances of reticulocyte hemoglobin content in young children with acute infection. Methods : We studied...
A comparative study on iron deficiency anemia based on feeding patterns of nine-month-old infants
Hyun Jin Yun, Eun Jeong Choi, Eun Jin Choi, Su Young Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):820-826.   Published online August 15, 2008
Purpose : This study was conducted to evaluate the red cell indices and frequency of iron deficiency anemia based on the feeding patterns of nine-month-old infants. Methods : Blood tests were performed on 253 nine-month-old infants, who visited Il Sin Christian Hospital for health check- ups from January to December 2007. Their parents answered telephonic questions regarding their feeding patterns...
A study of mothers knowledge of weaning of infants with iron-deficiency anemia
Sung Jin Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Joo Hee Chang, Yong Hun Jun, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(5):468-473.   Published online May 15, 2008
Purpose : Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is still one of the most common nutrient deficiency disorders, despite improvements in general health and nutrition. This study was designed to investigate the diagnostic values of hematological profiles, including the level of ferritin, and to evaluate the knowledge of mothers on weaning practices for infants and young children with IDA. Methods : This study...
Review Article
Aplastic anemia
Hack Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(6):519-523.   Published online June 15, 2007
Aplastic anemia is a rare disease, which is characterized by pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow without infiltration of abnormal cells or fibrosis. The incidence in Asia is higher than in the West and new cases are diagnosed at a rate of 5.1 per million pediatric populations per year in Korea. The pathophysiology is understood roughly by defective hematopoiesis, impaired bone...
Hemolytic anemia in pediatrics
Jeong Ok Hah
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(6):511-518.   Published online June 15, 2007
To understand the hemolytic anemia (HA) in children, the diagnostic approach and management of hereditary and acquired HA are described. The hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) can be classified according to the pathogenesis into three types : RBC membrane defects, hemoglobinopathies, and RBC enzymopathies. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and molecular defects of these three types are presented briefly. In Korea,...
Case Report
A case of dapsone syndrome
Yoo Jong Won, Ok Lan Kim, Seung Taek Yu, Young Wook Yoon, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(5):493-496.   Published online May 15, 2007
Diamino-diphenyl-sulfone (Dapsone) is widely used in the treatment of leprosy and a variety of blistering skin diseases. It sometimes has adverse side effects with common usual doses, such as skin, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney and hematologic toxicity. One of these side effects is a rare but serious hypersensitivity reaction called dapsone syndrome, which occurs several weeks after the...
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