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Review Article
Arrhythmia and COVID-19 in children
Mi Kyoung Song, Bryan Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(5):190-200.   Published online April 18, 2023
· Pediatric patients have a relatively low incidence of tachyarrhythmia both in acute coronavirus disease 2019 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), but it was associated with an increased risk of poor outcomes.
· Conduction abnormalities were not uncommon, especially in those with MIS-C. Most patients recovered to normal sinus rhythm; however, some progressed to advanced atrioventricular block and rarely required permanent pacemaker implantation.
Environmental changes surrounding congenital heart disease
Eun-Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(8):332-338.   Published online January 2, 2023
· As the number of patients with congenital heart disease increases, the medical burden increases.
· Various fusion imaging techniques using percutaneous procedures have been introduced.
· With advances in technology, convenient ambulatory devices have been introduced.
· A well-organized team approach is required to resolve advanced heart failure in patients with congenital heart disease.
Neonatal arrhythmias: diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome
Ji-Eun Ban
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):344-352.   Published online November 27, 2017

Arrhythmias in the neonatal period are not uncommon, and may occur in neonates with a normal heart or in those with structural heart disease. Neonatal arrhythmias are classified as either benign or nonbenign. Benign arrhythmias include sinus arrhythmia, premature atrial contraction, premature ventricular contraction, and junctional rhythm; these arrhythmias have no clinical significance and do not need therapy. Supraventricular tachycardia,...

Original Article
The corrected QT (QTc) prolongation in hyperthyroidism and the association of thyroid hormone with the QTc interval
Ye Seung Lee, Joong Wan Choi, Eun Ju Bae, Won Il Park, Hong Jin Lee, Phil Soo Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(7):263-266.   Published online July 22, 2015

Ventricular repolarization is assessed using the QT interval corrected by the heart rate (QTc) via an electrocardiogram (ECG). Prolonged QTc is associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias and cardiac mortality. As there have been few reports regarding the effects of hyperthyroidism on ventricular repolarization, we studied the association between serum free thyroxine (free T4 [fT4]) and thyroid stimulating hormone...

Review Article
Practical stepwise approach to rhythm disturbances in congenital heart diseases
June Huh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(6):680-687.   Published online June 23, 2010

Patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD) are confronted with early- and late-onset complications, such as conduction disorders, arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction, altered coronary flow, and ischemia, throughout their lifetime despite successful hemodynamic and/or anatomical correction. Rhythm disturbance is a well-known and increasingly frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CHD. Predisposing factors to rhythm disturbances include underlying cardiac defects,...

Original Article
Early postoperative arrhythmias after open heart surgery of pediatric congenital heart diseas
Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim, Joon Yong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee, Kyu Tae Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(4):532-537.   Published online April 15, 2010
Purpose : Early postoperative arrhythmias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity after open heart surgery in the pediatric population. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of early postoperative arrhythmias after surgery of congenital heart disease. Methods : From January 2002 to December 2008, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the 561 patients who underwent cardiac surgery in Kyungpook National University...
Case Report
Supraventricular tachycardia in a neonate with cardiac rhabdomyoma and tuberous sclerosis
In Kug Bang, Yeo Hyang Kim, Chun Soo Kim, Sang Lak Lee, Tae Chan Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(7):766-770.   Published online July 15, 2008
Primary tumors of the heart are uncommon among pediatric patients. Rhabdomyoma is the most frequent cardiac tumor in infants and children, which is commonly associated with tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis is a neurocutaneous syndrome affecting the brain, heart, skin, and other organs. Cardiac rhadomyomas are reported in 50-64% of infants with tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis involves multiple locations in the...
Review Article
Nonpharmacological treatment of arrhythmia
Eun-Jung Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(9):930-936.   Published online September 15, 2006
Although antiarrhythmic medication has been the main treatment modality for arrhythmia in children, in recent decades technological development and computerization have made great advances in nonpharmacological therapy. This article reviews the transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for tachycardia in children, recent advances of device therapy for bradycardia, antitachycardia pacing, implantable cardioverter defibrillator. As a new field of device therapy, cardiac resynchronization therapy...
Clinical Lecture
Benign Arrhythmias in Infants and Children
Jae Kon Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2005
Pediatricians often encounter some electrocardiographic abnormalities in infants and children. However, treatment or referral to pediatric cardiologist is not indicated for all arrhythmias. Many of them are benign in nature. Benign arrhythmias can be defined as the arrhythmias that no serious problem currently exists and no treatment is needed. The prognosis of benign arrhythmias is so good that the condition...
Original Article
Screening Test for Heart Diseases in the First Grade Elementary School Children in Busan
Jae Min Oh, Hee Ju Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(5):490-494.   Published online May 15, 2003
Purpose : We'd like to determine the incidence of congenital heart disease and arrhythmia in elementary school children in Busan, and to provide adequate prevention and treatment. Methods : A total of 23,802(male 12,909, female 10,893) 1st grade elementary school children living in Busan were studied. All children were 7-8 years old. We obtained their medical history by questionnaire and checked...
Clinical Features and ECG Findings of Supraventricular Tachycardia in Pediatric Patients
Chang Hwan Jang, Myung Chul Hyun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(9):1012-1018.   Published online September 15, 2001
Purpose : Supraventricular tachycardia(SVT) is the most frequent symptomatic arrhythmia in children. We performed this study to disover the SVT mechanisms, age at SVT onset, symptoms and ECG findings of SVT and effect of adenosine on SVT. Methods : We studied 57 patients(male : 30, female : 27, age : 1 day-15.8 years) who had been admitted or transferred due to SVT from January,...
Ventricular Inhomogeneity and Beat-to-beat QT Interval Variability after Surgical Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot
Su-Hyun Kim, Myung-Kul Yum, Nam-Su Kim, Chang-Ryul Kim, Chul-Burm Lee, Chung-Ill Noh, Hee-Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(4):418-425.   Published online April 15, 2001
Purpose : The object of this study is to determine whether QT interval variability in patients with postoperative tetralogy of Fallot increases. Methods : We enrolled 41 patients who had total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, and 31 healthy controls. They were 6-12 years old. Patients were divided into 2 groups : arrhythmia-positive patients(n=10) who had ventricular premature contractions more than...
Depolarization, Repolarization Inhomogeneity and Late Potential after Surgical Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot
Soo Young Kim, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee, Seung Tae Kim, Jong Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(8):1071-1077.   Published online August 15, 1999
Purpose : After repair of tetralogy of Fallot(TOF), ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death remain as serious late complications which are due to right ventricular systolic and diastolic overloading, exposure to hypoxia and surgical scar. Among the various methods for predicting the risk of such complications, we evaluated signal average ECG(SAECG), QRS duration, QT and JT dispersion, cardiothoracic(CT) ratio, age at...
Effects of Cisapride on Action Potential Duration and on ATP-Sensitive K Channel in Guinea Pig Ventricular Muscles
Chan Uhng Joo, Young Jae Kim, Sung Ki Mun, Soo Wan Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(7):953-958.   Published online July 15, 1999
Purpose : Cisapride(PrepulsidⓇ) has been recently associated with long QT syndrome. It has been reported to cause Torsades de Pointes and induce early afterdepolarization in rabbit Purkinje fibers. We investigated the electrophysiological effects of cisapride on cardiac action potential duration and ATP-sensitive K channel in papillary muscles. Methods : Cardiac action potentials in guinea pig papillary muscle were recorded with microelectrodes...
Case Report
Three Cases of Cardiac Arrythmias Associated with Intravenous Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy
Jun Ho Lee, Jun Huh, Myung Dong Shin, Dong Kyu Jin, Il Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong, Chung Il Noh, Yong Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(3):393-407.   Published online March 15, 1997
Methylprednisolone(MP) is administered by means of intravenous pulse therapy especially in the patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(FSGS). There have been reports of its complications in a few increasing frequency. We experienced three cases of cardiaccomplications during intravenous pulsetherapy.Therewere onecaseof2¡ÆA-V block(Mobitztype I) and two cases of bradycardia and hypotension. In the former,2¡ÆA-V block in the first case deveoloped 45 hours after...
Original Article
Studies on Arrhythmias in School Children.
Young Hwue Kim, Hann Tchah, Ki Soo Kim, Chung Il Noh, Jung Yun Choi, Young Soo Yun, Chang Yee Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(8):1093-1097.   Published online August 31, 1989
To determine the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias of the school children, we have performed heart screening by the questionare and EKG and physical examination from September 1984 to October 1987 in Seoul. 1) The incidence of the cardiac arrhythmias was 1.27%. 2) There were 449 cases of heart diseases detected. Among these heart diseases there were congeni- tal heart diseases in 82 cases (0.31%), acquired heart diseases...
Clinical Observation on Amiodarone Treatment for Critical Arrhythmia in Children.
Ki Soo Kim, Chung Il Noh, Jung Yun Choi, Yong Soo Yoon, Chang Yee Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(6):765-772.   Published online June 30, 1989
Sixteen cases of critical arrhythmia in children were prospectively studied at the department of pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, from Oct. 1986 to Apr. 1988 in order to determine the efficacy and side effect of amiodarone treatment in children. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 17 years with 2 patients younger than 1 year of age. The most frequent indication of amiodarone treatment...
Arrhythmia in Children with Congenital Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries.
Yong Soo Yun, Chung Il Noh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1988;31(5):584-589.   Published online May 31, 1988
We studied the incidence of the arrhythmia in 10 children with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries diagnosed during the period from May 1986 to July 1987. Patient age ranged from 1 to 15 years. On the 12 leads surface electrocardiogram, there were complete atrioventricular block in one child and wide P wave in two. On the 24-hour electrocar- diogram, there were sinus...
2 Cases of Infantile Spasms(Cryptogenic Type) Treated with ACTH Therapy.
Shin Heh Kang, Chang Jun Coe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1987;30(8):928-933.   Published online August 31, 1987
We have experienced 2 cases of infantile spasms treated with ACTH. They were diagnosed as cryptogenic type within relatively short duration after the onset. With the administration of ACTH, flexor spasms and hypsarrhythmia disappeared. They did not demonstrate any intellectual impair- ment on OPD follow up study. A brief review of literatures was made.
Case Report
Fatal and Neonatal Arrhythmia: 3 cases.
Seon Ock Khang, Eui Soo Park, Heung Jae Lee, Keun Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1984;27(10):1000-1005.   Published online October 31, 1984
Authors experienced three cases of arrhythmia which were assumed to be present from their fetal lives. One of cases was congenital complete heart block with Adams-Stokes attacks who had the history of severe fetal bradycardia. The other two cases had benign supraventricular ectopic beats with spontaneous recovery within two months of age. Fetal tachycardia was observed in one case with multifocal...
Original Article
Cardiac Arrhythmia in Infants and Children.
Jun Hee Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(3):234-240.   Published online March 31, 1982
Cardiac arrhythmia which was observed during 5 years and 10 months from September 1975 to June 1981 on 11, 273 ECG records of the pediatric patients were analysed. Simple sinus arrhythmia and bundle branch blocks were excluded from this study. 602 cases of arrhythmia were seen among the 11,273 cases(5.3%). The types of arrhythmia in the order of frequency are:...
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