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Review Article
Macronutrients modifed dietary intervention in the management of overweight/obese children and adolescents - Systematic review
Jihyun Park, Oh Yoen Kim
The prevalence of obesity in both adults and children is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is one of main causes developing chronic diseases and various problems like economic consequence. It can be affected by genetic, environmental, psychological, and socioeconomic factors. Dietary modification is a well-known important factor in weight control. Precisely, dietary macronutrients composition, food selection, and dietary patterns...
Heart failure in children and adolescents: an update on diagnostic approaches and management
Amit Agrawal, Dalwinder Janjua, Abdulrahman Ahmed Alsayed Ali Zeyada, Ahmed Taher Elsheikh
Cardiac failure is a clinical syndrome that may develop in children due to cardiac dysfunction or underlying structural heart diseases. Considering the differences in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of pediatric heart failure (PHF) and adult HF, we aimed to review the current literature on PHF. Relevant studies were extracted from Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, and Clinical Trial Registries using the...
Original Article
Gastroenterology
Assessing indicators and clinical differences between functional and organic childhood constipation: a retrospective study in pediatric gastroenterology clinics
Hasan M. Isa, Fatema A. Alkharsi, Fatema A. Salman, Maryam S. Ali, Zahra K. Abdulnabibi, Afaf M. Mohamed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(7):296-306.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: What causes childhood constipation, and what can predict organic constipation?
Finding: Constipation represents 14.7% of gastroenterology visits. Functional constipation is more common among constipation types, while organic constipation is more common in young children and those with a low body weight, stunted growth, mucus in the stool, and associated diseases.
Meaning: Younger children and those with lower growth or mucus in the stool should be assessed for underlying organic causes of constipation.
Other
Clinical spectrum and short-term outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in a south Indian hospital
Muruganantham Balagurunathan, Thrilok Natarajan, Jothilakshmi Karthikeyan, Venkateshwaran Palanisamy
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):531-537.   Published online August 4, 2021
Question: What are the clinical spectrum, course, and short-term outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)?
Finding: MIS-C can have variable clinical manifestations. Fever is most common, followed by gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms. Early identification and appropriate management lead to favorable outcomes.
Meaning: MIS-C can present in a myriad of ways and severities. High suspicion is necessary to ensure its early identification and appropriate management and favorable patient outcomes.
Review Article
General Pediatrics
Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019
Ji Hee Kwak, Soo-Young Lee, Jong-Woon Choi; the Korean Society of Kawasaki Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):68-75.   Published online December 30, 2020
Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with hyperinflammatory responses such as Kawasaki disease have been reported amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to coining of the new term COVID-19–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. In this review article, we introduce the illness and describe its case definitions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes.
Original Article - Clinical trial
WITHDRAWN:Randomized controlled trial of effect of N-acetylcysteine as an antioxidant on iron overload in children with thalassemia major
Yasmen A Mohamed, Mohamed H Meabed, Amany Ashraf, Dalia S Morgan, Mostafa G Abdul Latif, Rehab M Abd-Elkareem, Heba M Ahmed
Background: β-Thalassemias are characterized by the presence of mutations in the globin gene that result in the absence or reduced synthesis of β-globin chains of the hemoglobin tetramer. Several studies have reported increased oxidative stress in β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a derivative of L-cysteine amino acid, is commonly used as a mucolytic drug. Numerous studies have reported efficient...
Review Article
Other
Review of epidemiological studies on air pollution and health effects in children
Jong-Tae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):3-11.   Published online June 10, 2020
This review summarized the accumulated epidemiologic evidence with emphasis on studies conducted in Korea and heterogeneity in the literature. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there is consistent evidence on the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and children’s health, especially respiratory health and adverse birth outcomes, and growing evidence on neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Development of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST)
Hee Jung Chung, Donghwa Yang, Gun-Ha Kim, Sung Koo Kim, Seoung Woo Kim, Young Key Kim, Young Ah Kim, Joon Sik Kim, Jin Kyung Kim, Cheongtag Kim, In-Kyung Sung, Son Moon Shin, Kyung Ja Oh, Hee-Jeong Yoo, Hee Joon Yu, Seoung-Joon Lim, Jeehun Lee, Hae-Ik Jeong, Jieun Choi, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):438-446.   Published online May 14, 2020
Question: Can the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST) be a useful screening tool for infants and children in Korea?
Finding: The K-DST has high reliability (internal consistency of 0.73–0.93, test-retest reliability of 0.77–0.88) and a high discriminatory ability with a sensitivity of 0.833 and specificity of 0.979.
Meaning: The K-DST is an effective and reliable screening tool for infants and children with neurodevelopmental disorders in Korea.
Review Article
Neurology
Autoimmune encephalitis and epilepsy: evolving definition and clinical spectrum
Joo Hee Seo, Yun-Jin Lee, Ki Hyeong Lee, Elakkat Gireesh, Holly Skinner, Michael Westerveld
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):291-300.   Published online August 16, 2019
Advances in autoimmune encephalitis studies in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to the disorder. The disorder or syndrome has been linked to a wide variety of pathologic processes associated with the neuron-specific autoantibodies targeting intracellular and plasma membrane antigens. However, current criteria for autoimmune encephalitis...
Original Article
Cardiology
A comparative study of established z score models for coronary artery diameters in 181 healthy Korean children
Kyungguk Ryu, Jeong Jin Yu, Hyun Ok Jun, Eun Jung Shin, Young Hee Heo, Jae Suk Baek, Young-Hwue Kim, Jae-Kon Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):373-378.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate the statistical properties of four previously developed pediatric coronary artery z score models in healthy Korean children.

Methods

The study subjects were 181 healthy Korean children, whose age ranged from 1 month to 15 years. The diameter of each coronary artery was measured using 2-dimensional echocardiography and converted to the z score in the...

Gastroenterology
Characteristics and prognosis of hepatic cytomegalovirus infection in children: 10 years of experience at a university hospital in Korea
Chae-Yeon Min, Joo Young Song, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):261-265.   Published online August 14, 2017
Purpose

Studies on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunocompetent children are lacking, and minimal information is available in the medical literature on hepatic manifestations and complications of CMV. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and prognosis of children with CMV hepatitis, and to investigate its prevalence at a single medical center in Korea over a...

Case Report
Neurology
A rare case of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor combined with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis and intractable seizures
Jee-Yeon Han, Mi-Sun Yum, Eun-Hee Kim, Seokho Hong, Tae-Sung Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S139-S144.   Published online November 30, 2016

Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome that affects ectomesodermal tissues (skin, eyes, adipose tissue, and brain). The neurologic manifestations associated with ECCL are various including seizures. However, ECCL patients very rarely develop brain tumors that originate from the neuroepithelium. This is the first described case of ECCL in combination with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) that presented with intractable...

Original Article
Efficacy of imatinib mesylate-based front-line therapy in pediatric chronic myelogenous leukemia
Hyun Jin Oh, Mun Sung Cho, Jae Wook Lee, Pil-Sang Jang, Nack-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Hack-Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(8):343-350.   Published online August 27, 2013
Purpose

Despite the established role of imatinib (IM) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in adults, there are few reports on its efficacy in children. In this study, we compared the outcomes of children with CML before and after the advent of IM-based treatment.

Methods

The study cohort consisted of 52 patients treated for CML at the Department of Pediatrics, The Catholic University of...

p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis
Hye Sun Hyun, Kyung Hoon Paik, Hee Yeon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(4):159-164.   Published online April 22, 2013
Purpose

Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate as well as the...

Clinical features of Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis in hospitalized Korean children
Keun Hyung Son, Mee Yong Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(10):409-413.   Published online October 31, 2011
Purpose

Few studies have been conducted on the recent status of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in Korean children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent trend in the clinical manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated IM as well as the clinical differences according to age.

Methods

A retrospective study was performed on 81 children hospitalized with EBV-associated IM who fulfilled the serological...

Clinical characteristics and outcomes among pediatric patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection
Eun Lee, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyung-Young Kim, Shin Na, Sung-Han Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Byoung-Ju Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(8):329-334.   Published online August 31, 2011
Purpose

The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and epidemiologic features and outcomes among children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the charts of hospitalized pediatric patients (<18 years) diagnosed with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea, between September 2009 and February 2010.

Results

A total...

Review Article
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis on the basis of clinical course
Yun Jin Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(6):234-240.   Published online June 30, 2011

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalopathy. ADEM is considered an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by an environmental stimulus in genetically susceptible individuals. The diagnosis of ADEM is based on clinical and radiological features. Most children with ADEM...

The treatment of pediatric chronic myelogenous leukemia in the imatinib era
Jae Wook Lee, Nack Gyun Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(3):111-116.   Published online March 31, 2011

Childhood chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a rare hematologic disease, with limited literature on the methods of treatment. Previously, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was considered the only curative treatment for this disease. Treatment with imatinib, a selective inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase (TKI), has resulted in prolonged molecular response with limited drug toxicity. Imatinib is now implemented...

Original Article
Reference values for respiratory system impedance using impulse oscillometry in healthy preschool children
Jye Hae Park, Jung Won Yoon, Youn Ho Shin, Hye Mi Jee, Young Sun Wee, Sun Jung Chang, Jung Hwa Sim, Hye Yung Yum, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(2):64-68.   Published online February 28, 2011
Purpose

The normal values for lung resistance and lung capacity of children, as determined by impulse oscillometry (IOS), are different for children of different ethnicities. However, reference values there is no available reference value for Korean preschool children have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the normal ranges of IOS parameters in Korean preschool...

Review Article
Role of colonoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric lower gastrointestinal disorders
Jae Hong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(9):824-829.   Published online September 13, 2010

The safety and effectiveness of colonoscopy in the investigation of lower gastrointestinal tract pathology in children has been established for more than 2 decades in Korea. Skill and experience have since advanced to the point that both diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy are now routinely performed by most pediatric gastroenterologists. Pediatric colonoscopy differs significantly from its adult parallels in nearly every...

Original Article
Clinical outcome of acute myocarditis in children according to treatment modalities
Hyun Jung Kim, Gyeong-Hee Yoo, Hong Ryang Kil
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(7):745-752.   Published online July 31, 2010
Purpose

There is currently little evidence to support intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) therapy for pediatric myocarditis. The purpose of our retrospective study was to assess the effects of IVIG therapy in patients with presumed myocarditis on survival and recovery of ventricular function and to determine the factors associated with its poor outcome.

Methods

We reviewed all consecutive cases of patients with myocarditis with...

Case Report
A childhood case of spinal tuberculosis misdiagnosed as muscular dystrophy
Doo Il Song, Su Ye Sohn, Yun Kyung Kim, So Hee Eun, Young Jun Rhie, Gi Young Jang, Chan Wook Woo, Byung Min Choi, Jung Hwa Lee, Bo Kyung Je
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(5):657-660.   Published online May 31, 2010

Tuberculosis is primarily a pulmonary disease, but extra-pulmonary manifestations are not uncommon, especially in children and adolescents. Ten percent of extra pulmonary tuberculosis localizes to the bones and joints, and 56% of such cases affect the spine. We treated a childhood case of spinal tuberculosis misdiagnosed as muscular dystrophy in a patient without specific constitutional symptoms. We report this case...

Original Article
Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics in children with type 1 diabetes according to pancreatic autoantibodies
Ji Hae Choi, Min Sun Kim, Chan Jong Kim, Jong Duk Kim, Dae-Yeol Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):414-419.   Published online March 15, 2010

Purpose:The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any difference in the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with autoantibody-positive and patients with autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes at initial presentation. Methods:We analyzed 96 patients under 18 years of age with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. One or both of the pancreatic autoantibodies-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and...
Limitations of 99mTc-DMSA scan in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis in children
Byung Gee Kim, Jae Ryoung Kwak, Ji Min Park, Ki Soo Pai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):408-413.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : We aimed to prove the relative limitation of 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy (DMSA) compared to computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children. Methods : Since September 2006, after a 64-channel CT was imported, 10 DMSA false-negative patients have been identified: these patients underwent a CT scan for acute abdomen or acute febrile symptoms and were diagnosed as...
Clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections due to 13 respiratory viruses detected by multiplex PCR in children
Jeong-Sook Lim, Sung-Il Woo, Hyuk-Il Kwon, Hyuk-Il Kwon, Young-Ki Choi, Youn-Soo Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):373-379.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical features of 13 respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs). Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively obtained from 325 children aged 15 years or less from May 2008 to April 2009 and were tested for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time-polymerase chain...
Caregivers’adherence factors affecting maintenance treatment in children with well-controlled asthma : A qualitative analysis through in-depth interview
Ic Sun Choi, Saeng Koo Cho, Kyong Suk La, Jung Hye Byeon, Dae Jin Song, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):364-372.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : Good adherence of caregivers is essential for successful health outcomes in the treatment of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors contributing to good adherence of maintenance treatment in children with well-controlled asthma. Methods : Children with well-controlled asthma being treated with a daily controller for at least 3 months in Korea University...
Body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in children below 7 years old
Jiyoung Jung, Han Wool Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):341-348.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : Body composition is important to define and manage obesity and undernutrition. Obesity is a significant health problem with medical and psychological consequences for children and adolescents. Body composition analysis (BIA) is a simple, rapid, noninvasive, and reproducible technique. However, comparative analysis of body composition has not been done in young children below 7 years old. The aim of...
Effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children
Seongkuk Kim, Bo Eun Kim, Eun Ju Ha, Mi Young Moon, Seong Jong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):323-328.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : To verify the effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children and to identify the blood glucose level that influences prognosis. Methods : From July 2006 to June 2008, a total of 206 patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Asan Medical Center and who survived for more than 7 days...
Review Article
Pediatric dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: interpretation and clinical and research application
Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):286-293.   Published online March 15, 2010
Peak bone mass is established predominately during childhood and adolescence. It is an important determinant of future resistance to osteoporosis and fractures to gain bone mass during growth. The issue of low bone density in children and adolescents has recently attracted much attention and the use of pediatric dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasing. The process of interpretation of pediatric...
Original Article
Association between polymorphisms in Interleukin-17 receptor A gene and childhood IgA nephropathy
Seung-Ah Baek, Won-Ho Hahn, Byoung-Soo Cho, Sung-Do Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(2):215-221.   Published online February 15, 2010
Purpose : Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is produced by activated CD4+T cells and exhibits pleiotropic biological activity on various cell types. IL-17 was reported to be involved in the immunoregulatory response in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Our aim was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) gene and childhood IgAN. Methods : We analyzed the SNPs in the...
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