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Original Article
Cardiology
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):410-416.   Published online December 8, 2021
In children with primary dyslipidemia, functional myocardial abnormalities can occur at young age, including diastolic functional impairment of both ventricles and narrowing of the aortic valve and the sinus of Valsalva. Echocardiographic evaluations of high-risk children may be as important as biochemical evaluations.
Importance of pulmonary valve morphology for pulmonary valve preservation in tetralogy of Fallot surgery: comparison of the echocardiographic parameters
Su Jin Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Da Eun Roh, Myung Chul Hyun, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):189-194.   Published online November 8, 2019
Question: Is echocardiographic examination is useful for surgical method decision in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?
Finding: Various echocardiographic parameters serve as predictors for determining surgical methods for TOF patients. However, the PV morphology and tissue characteristics should also be considered.
Meaning: A full dependence on the size of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), the z score, and the ratio of the size of PVA to aortic valve annulus or descending aorta surgery may result in inadequate surgical results during TOF total correction.
Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: a case control study using speckle tracking echocardiography
Beom Joon Kim, Kyung Pil Moon, Ji-Hong Yoon, Eun-Jung Lee, Jae Young Lee, Seong Koo Kim, Jae Wook Lee, Nack Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Hack Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(4):190-195.   Published online April 30, 2016
Purpose

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA), a fatal disease, requires multiple transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, and finally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as the definitive treatment. We hypothesized that iron overloading associated with multiple transfusions and HSCTrelated complications may adversely affect cardiac function. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed in children after HSCT for SAA.

Methods

Forty-six consecutive patients with a median age of 9.8...

Correlation of B-type natriuretic peptide levels and echocardiographic parameters in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus
Hyun Ah Jeong, Jeonghee Shin, Eunji Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Byung Min Choi, Chang Sung Son, Joo Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(4):183-189.   Published online April 30, 2016
Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the correlation, according to postnatal age, between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and echocardiographic parameters for the assessment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants with respiratory distress.

Methods

We enrolled 42 preterm infants with respiratory distress who underwent serial echocardiographic evaluation with simultaneous plasma BNP measurements until ductal closure. The correlations between BNP levels...

Cardiopulmonary function and scoliosis severity in idiopathic scoliosis children
Seokwon Huh, Lucy Yougmin Eun, Nam Kyun Kim, Jo Won Jung, Jae Young Choi, Hak Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):218-223.   Published online June 22, 2015
Purpose

Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural lateral curvature of the spine of unknown etiology. The relationship between degree of spine curvature and cardiopulmonary function has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scoliosis and cardiopulmonary characteristics.

Methods

Ninety children who underwent preoperative pulmonary or cardiac evaluation at a single spine institution over 41 months were...

Effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on right ventricle function in children
Jin Hwan Lee, Jung Min Yoon, Jae Woo Lim, Kyung Og Ko, Seong Jun Choi, Jong-Yeup Kim, Eun Jung Cheon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(11):484-488.   Published online November 30, 2014
Purpose

Chronic upper airway obstruction causes hypoxemic pulmonary vasoconstriction, which may lead to right ventricle (RV) dysfunction. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) is the most common cause of upper airway obstruction in children. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate RV function in children with ATH.

Methods

Twenty-one children (male/female, 15/6; mean age, 92.3¡¾39.0 months; age range, 4-15 years) with ATH and 21 healthy age- and gender-matched...

Review Article
Comprehensive understanding of atrial septal defects by imaging studies for successful transcatheter closure
Jinyoung Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(7):297-303.   Published online July 23, 2014

Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects has become a popular procedure. The availability of a preprocedural imaging study is crucial for a safe and successful closure. Both the anatomy and morphology of the defect should be precisely evaluated before the procedure. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography are helpful for understanding the morphology of a defect, which is important...

Original Article
Myocardial atrophy in children with mitochondrial disease and Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Tae Ho Lee, Lucy Youngmin Eun, Jae Young Choi, Hye Eun Kwon, Young-Mock Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Seong-Woong Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(5):232-239.   Published online May 31, 2014
Purpose

Mitochondrial disease (MD) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are often associated with cardiomyopathy, but the myocardial variability has not been isolated to a specific characteristic. We evaluated the left ventricular (LV) mass by echocardiography to identify the general distribution and functional changes of the myocardium in patients with MD or DMD.

Methods

We retrospectively evaluated the echocardiographic data of 90 children with...

Review Article
Pulmonary hypertension in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Gi Beom Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(6):688-693.   Published online June 23, 2010

An increase in the number of preterm infants and a decrease in the gestational age at birth have resulted in an increase in the number of patients with significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH contributes significantly to the high morbidity and mortality in the BPD patients. Therefore, regular monitoring for PH by using echocardiography and B-type...

Original Article
Serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and adiponectin levels in Kawasaki disease
Jung Ahn, Han Gyu Kim, Sejung Sohn, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(1):41-47.   Published online January 15, 2010
Purpose : Adiponectin is an endogenous modulator of vascular remodeling that suppresses vascular inflammation. However, the role of adiponectin in Kawasaki disease (KD) has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between serum adiponectin level and several parameters, such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipid profile, and C reactive protein (CRP), and...
Variation of parameters according to cardiac cycle length, evaluated by TDI in children
Chang-Hyun Lee, Jae-Kwang Kim, Hyun-Seung Jin, Kie-Young Park, Bong-Seong Kim, Myung-Ki Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(3):339-345.   Published online March 15, 2009
Purpose : This study aimed to determine the variation in parameters according to cardiac cycle length (CL; time interval between the QRS peaks on ECG) in children by using the conventional pulsed Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography. Methods : Eighteen children with an anatomically normal heart were enrolled for the study. All children were examined by conventional and pulsed...
Comparison of defect size measured by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography with balloon occlusive diameter measured during transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect
Kyong Hur, Jeong Eun Kim, Yuria Kim, Hae Sik Kwon, Byung Won Yoo, Jae Young Choi, Jun Hee Sul
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(10):970-975.   Published online October 15, 2007
Purpose : Accurate measurement of defect size is important in transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD). We performed this study to analyze the difference between the measured ASD size and balloon occlusive diameter (BOD) by transthoracic (TTE) or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods : We investigated 78 patients who underwent transcatheter closure of ASD. The defect size and the distance between...
Evaluation of short-term cardiac function by tissue Doppler imaging in pre and postoperative period of congenital heart disease
Jun-Hwa Lee, Yeo-Hyang Kim, Myung-Chul Hyun, Sang-Bum Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(5):476-483.   Published online May 15, 2007
Purpose : The objective of this study was to assess ventricular function by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have been undergoing open heart surgery (OHS) using cardiopulmonary bypass. We tried to compare the parameters of tissue Doppler imaging before and after OHS in patients with congenital heart disease. Methods : This study was conducted...
Usefulness of echocardiographic findings in the early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease
Chang Hwan Choi, Sung Hwan Byun, Je Duk Jeon, Jong-Woon Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(1):47-51.   Published online January 15, 2007
Purpose : The early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) is difficult sometimes, especially in atypical or incomplete cases presenting 4 or less principal clinical features without coronary arterial lesions (coronary arterial ectasia or aneurysm). The authors investigated the incidence of echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with KD to discover whether abnormal echocardiographic findings might be helpful in the early diagnosis of...
The difference between the two methods for myocardial performance index in children
Jae-Il Joung, Chang-Hyun Lee, Jae-Kwang Kim, Kie-Young Park, Bong-Sung Kim, Jung-Ju Lee, Myung-Ki Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(12):1324-1328.   Published online December 15, 2006
목 적 : 소아를 대상으로 고식적인 심초음파와 도플러 초음파를 이용하여 서로 다른 두 방법으로 측정한 심근 수행 지수의 차이를 알아보는 것이다. 방 법 : 2005년 12월부터 2006년 2월까지 강릉 아산 병원을 방문한 정상 심장을 가진 27명의 소아를 대상으로 하였다. 우선 심첨 4방 단면도에서 승모판 유입 혈류 도플러로부터 a1간격을 측정하고, 심첨 5방 단면도에서 ET1을 측정하였다. 그런 연후, MPI1, ICT1 그리고 IRT1을 계산하였다....
Impact of fetal diagnosis of congenital heart disease on parents
Eun Young Choi, Chang Hoon Lee, Myung Ja Yoon, Eun Sook Han, Joon Suk Hong, Yun Sook Jung, Jung Yun Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(10):1073-1078.   Published online October 15, 2006
Purpose : This study was performed to assess how a fetal diagnosis of congenital heart disease affects parents, as regards pregnancy management and care of infants after birth. Methods : Database search to find out abnormal fetal echocardiography performed at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from July 1988 to June 2003 revealed 370 examinations. After excluding both arrhythmias without structural cardiac...
Case Report
A case of constrictive pericarditis presenting with protein-losing enteropathy
Jeong Mi Hong, Jae Young Lee, Soo Jin Kim, Gi Young Jang, Woo Sup Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(8):898-901.   Published online August 15, 2006
Constrictive pericarditis represents a rare cause of protein-losing enteropathy in children. Reported is an 11-year-old girl with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) as the principal manifestations of constrictive pericarditis. After total pericardiectomy, symptoms and signs of PLE disappeared. Doppler echocardiography including tissue Doppler imaging is a useful noninvasive initial diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis of diastolic heart failure.
Original Article
Follow-Up Method in Patients with Kawasaki Disease who had No Coronary Artery Abnormalities in the Convalescent Period
Hee Jung Joo, Min Seob Song, Chul Ho Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):165-173.   Published online February 15, 2005
Purpose : We performed the study to evaluate the value of the follow-up echocardiogram performed 6 months to 1 year after the onset of Kawasaki disease(KD), as recommended by American Heart Association(AHA) guidelines, when echocardiograms in the convalescent period were normal. Methods : Patients were selected from 147 cases diagnosed with KD at Pusan Paik hospital from January 2000 to October...
Usefulness of Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography
Dong Won Lee, Byung Mok Kim, Sei Young Kim, Yeo Hyang Kim, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(12):1281-1286.   Published online December 15, 2004
Purpose : This study was undertaken to learn the usefulness, cost-effectiveness and safety of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography(ITEE) during open heart surgery for congenital heart diseases. Methods : The usefulness and safety of ITEE were assessed in 254 patients who underwent open heart surgery for congenital heart diseases from January 1, 2001 to June 30, 2003, with retrospective chart reviews and a...
Case Report
Congenital Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Manifested by Severe Cyanosis in Infancy
Jae Ju Cho, Woo Sung Park, I-Seok Kang, Tae-Gook Jun, Mi-Jin Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(10):1114-1118.   Published online October 15, 2004
Congenital pulmonary vein stenosis(CPVS) with anatomically normal connection, a rare anomaly, usually leads to progressive pulmonary hypertension, cardiac failure in infancy, and death if untreated. Most are combined with other anomalies, particularly left to right shunt lesions. Very often, the detection of CPVS is overlooked on the initial cardiac echocardiogram, because it may be mild in its severity initially, but...
Original Article
Echocardiographic Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Kawasaki Disease : Effect of Immune Globulin
Mi-Jin Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(6):665-671.   Published online June 15, 2004
Purpose : The purpose of this investigation was to identify the impaired myocardial function and improvement with immune globulin in Kawasaki disease. Methods : The myocardial performance and diastolic function were evaluated in 52 patients. M-mode and Doppler echocardiography were performed before(pre) and after immune globulin treatment : two to nine days(pre), five to 15 days(period one), 14 to 35...
Postoperative Progress and Influencing Factors in Patients after Rastelli Procedure
Se Heui Kim, Kyeong Sik Kim, Jong Kyun Lee, Jae Young Choi, Jun Hee Sul, Sung Kyu Lee, Young Whan Park, Bum Koo Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(3):259-264.   Published online March 15, 2003
Purpose : We have performed an analysis on patients who received Rastelli operation in our institute and reviewed their progress postoperatively. Various factors with suspected relationship to the outcome have been considered to help in future treatment and follow-up. Methods : We analyzed retrospectively 43 patients who either received Rastelli operation in Yonsei University Cardiovascular Center from March 1995 to April...
Follow-up Study of Children with Anthracycline Cardiotoxicity
Hyok Joo Kwon, Young Hwan Song, Soo Jung Kang, Hyoung Jin Kang, Hyoung Soo Choi, Eun Jung Bae, Hee Young Shin, Chung Il Noh, Yong Soo Yun, Hyo Seop Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(3):242-249.   Published online March 15, 2003
Purpose : We studied the relationship between anthracycline cumulative dose and anthracycline cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer and followed up 40 children with anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Methods : A retrospective study was performed in 154 children who received anthracycline chemotherapy between January 1995 to December 2000. Cardiotoxicity was defined when the left ventricular fractional shortening(FS) was below 26%; it was divided into two...
Case Report
A Case of Neonatal Atrial Flutter Treated by Propafenone after Fetal Echocardiographic Diagnosis
Kyung Hwa Lee, Chang Woo Ha, Chul Ho Kim, Min Seob Song, Moon Su Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(7):928-932.   Published online July 15, 2002
Perinatal atrial flutter is a potentially lethal arrhythmia. Management of this disorder is difficult and controversial. Fetal atrial flutter is a serious and life threatening rhythm disorder particulary when it causes hydrops; it may be associated with fetal death or neurological damage. Although the initial episode of flutter may be difficult to control, recurrence of atrial flutter after successful resolution...
A False Diagnosis of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in a Fetus
Youn Jeong Shin, Sung Hee Jang, Jung Yun Choi, Eun Sook Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(2):267-272.   Published online February 15, 2002
Typical hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS) is a distinct pathologic entity with aortic atresia, mitral atresia, very hypoplastic or absent left ventricle and thread like ascending aorta. Occasionally, the lesser degree of hypoplasia is found and is called hypoplastic left heart complex(HLHC) by some authors. This HLHC is often associated with critical aortic stenosis. Fetal echocardiography has enabled us to observe...
Original Article
Clinical Analysis of Atypical Kawasaki Disease : Comparison of Kawasaki Disease Between Typical and Atypical Types
Eun Ju Jeong, Jae Hong Park, Hee Ju Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(12):1448-1453.   Published online December 15, 2001
Purpose : Kawasaki disease(KD) is known as one of the most important causes of acquired heart disease in children. But the incidence of acquired heart disease can be reduced by early diagnosis and treatment with large amounts of intravenous γ-globulin(IVGG). For early diagnosis and treatment of atypical KD, we analyzed and compared the clinical features, laboratory findings and coronary lesions in patients with typical...
Clinical Efficacy of Selective Fetal Echocardiography
Su Young Hong, Ji Eun Ban, Young Seok Lee, Hyoung Doo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(10):1127-1134.   Published online October 15, 2001
Purpose : The aims of this study was to assess the indication, diagnostic, accuracy and prognostic influence of fetal echocardiography. Methods : From 1995 to 1999, 283 pregnancies were evaluated with fetal echocardiography at Dong-A University Hospital. We reviewed medical records included indication, fetal echocardiographic findings, postnatal echocardiographic findings, methods of treatment and outcome of prenataly diagnosed patients. Results : Family...
The Measurement of Neonatal Pulmonary Artery Pressure by Echocardiography
Ju Young Chung, Dong Chul Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(8):886-892.   Published online August 15, 2001
Purpose : The main purpose of this study was to conduct accurate noninvasive measurement of the pulmonary artery pressure(PAP) in the neonatal period. The other purpose was to find some descriminant factors that are correlated with pulmonary artery pressure even when there is no tricuspid regurgitation(TR) or patent ductus arteriosus(PDA). Methods : 32 cases of premature and full term infants with...
Oscillometric Blood Pressure of Upper and Lower Extremities and Aortic Blood Flow Velocity in Neonates
Sang Young Bae, Hae Soon Kim, Se Jung Sohn, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(4):484-488.   Published online April 15, 2000
Purpose : We studied the blood pressure difference between the upper and lower extremities in healthy newborn infants and the effect of isthmic narrowing of the aorta on making a possible difference. Methods : The blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric blood pressure device from four extremities of 62 healthy infants aged 1-15 days. A Doppler echocardiography was performed for...
Postoperative Doppler Echocardiographic Study of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
Nam Cheol Cho, Hyoung Doo Lee, Si Chan Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(12):1683-1688.   Published online December 15, 1999
Purpose : We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of Doppler study by examining obstruction at the site of anastomosis in patients with total anomalous pulmonary venous return(TAPVR). Methods : Retrograde analysis of the postoperative echocardiography results was done in 14 patients with simple TAPVR, who were operated at Dong-A University Hospital from January 1993 to July 1998. The peak...
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