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Original Article
Usefulness of the procalcitonin test in young febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age
In Sul Lee, Young Jin Park, Mi Hyeon Jin, Ji Young Park, Hae Jeong Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Ju Suk Lee, Cheol Hong Kim, Young Don Kim, Jun Hwa Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):285-290.   Published online September 15, 2018

Purpose: To study the usefulness of the procalcitonin (PCT) test in young febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age. Methods: We evaluated the medical records of 336 febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age who visited the Emergency Department or outpatient department of Samsung Changwon Hospital from May 2015 to February 2017, and analyzed the clinical characteristics...
Etiology and clinical characteristics of fever of unknown origin in children: a 15-year experience in a single center
Yi-Seul Kim, Kyung-Ran Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Jong-Min Kim, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(3):77-85.   Published online March 27, 2017

Fever is one of the most common symptoms in children. In previous studies, infectious disease was the most common cause of pediatric fever of unknown origin (FUO). The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology, clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric FUO in 21 century with more diagnostics available and to analyze the factors for certain disease categories.



Case Report
Familial Mediterranean fever presenting as fever of unknown origin in Korea
Jun Hee Lee, Jong Hyun Kim, Jung Ok Shim, Kwang Chul Lee, Joo Won Lee, Jung Hwa Lee, Jae Jin Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S53-S56.   Published online November 30, 2016

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common Mendelian autoinflammatory disease, characterized by uncontrolled activation of the innate immune system that manifests as recurrent brief fever and polyserositis (e.g., peritonitis, pleuritic, and arthritis). FMF is caused by autosomal recessive mutations of the Mediterranean fever gene, MEFV which encodes the pyrin protein. Although FMF predominantly affects people from Mediterranean and Middle...

Original Article
Comparison between Kawasaki disease with lymph-node-first presentation and Kawasaki disease without cervical lymphadenopathy
Jung Ok Kim, Yeo Hyang Kim, Myung Chul Hyun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(2):54-58.   Published online February 29, 2016

We evaluated the characteristics of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) who presented with only fever and cervical lymphadenopathy on admission, and compared them with the characteristics of those who presented with typical features but no cervical lymphadenopathy.


We enrolled 98 patients diagnosed with KD. Thirteen patients had only fever and cervical lymphadenopathy on the day of admission (group 1), 31 had...

Case Report
A pediatric case of Brugada syndrome diagnosed by fever-provoked ventricular tachycardia
Geena Kim, Ye-Chan Kyung, I-Seok Kang, Jinyoung Song, June Huh, Young Keun On
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(8):374-378.   Published online August 25, 2014

Brugada syndrome is a rare channelopathy associated with the SCN5A gene that causes fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This case of Brugada syndrome, in which ventricular tachycardia (VT) was provoked by high fever, is the first report in a Korean child. The boy had retinoblastoma of his left eye diagnosed at 16 months of age. After chemotherapy, he contracted a catheter-related infection...

A case of Plasmodium vivax malaria occurring during a school excursion to Pocheon-gun
Byung Ok Kwak, Sochung Chung, Kyo Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(1):85-88.   Published online January 15, 2010
Malaria caused by Plasmodium species is characterized by paroxysms of fever, chills, fatigue, anemia, and splenomegaly. Vivax malaria has lately re-emerged as an infectious disease and has exhibited high transmission rate in northern Gyeonggi-do province. We encountered a case of malaria in a child presenting with fever and thrombocytopenia who had recently made a school excursion to Pocheon-gun, Gyeonggi-do. The...
Original Article
Predictive factors for severe infection among febrile infants younger than three months of age
Eun Young Cho, Hwa Song, Ae Suk Kim, Sun Ju Lee, Dong Seok Lee, Doo Kwun Kim, Sung Min Choi, Kwan Lee, Byoung Chan Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(8):898-903.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:This study investigated the predictive factors for identifying infection-prone febrile infants younger than three months. Methods:We conducted a retrospective study of 167 infants younger than three months with an axillary temperature >38℃ who were hospitalized between 2006 and 2008. If they met any of the following criteria, positive blood culture, CSF WBC ≥ 11/mm3 or positive CSF culture, urinalysis WBC ≥6/HPF and positive...
Review Article
Fever and rash
Jin Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(2):132-137.   Published online February 15, 2007
Patients with febrile illness and skin rashes need full and immediate attention. In general, these diseases show mild manifestations and good prognosis. However, causalities of some diseases with fever and rash may be life threatening or trivial. So, the differential diagnosis for those patients is extensive. A through history, a careful physical examination and close observation of clinical progress are...
Diagnostic approach to the fever of unknown origin in children - Emphasis on the infectious diseases -
Eun Hwa Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(2):127-131.   Published online February 15, 2007
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) has been a convenient term used to classify patients who warrant a particular systemic approach to diagnostic evaluation and management. The greatest clinical concern in evaluating FUO is identifying patients whose fever has a serious or life-threatening cause when a delay in diagnosis could jeopardize successful intervention. Thorough history and complete physical examination are critical...
Taek Jin Lee, Dong Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(2):121-126.   Published online February 15, 2007
Fever has been recognized as a cardinal feature of disease since antiquity, but only recently has the pathophysiology of fever come to be understood. It became clear that the ultimate cause of fever is not a bacterial product (a so-called exogenous pyrogen) but a product of host inflammatory cells (i.e., an endogenous pyrogen). Many studies have demonstrated that mononuclear phagocytes...
Original Article
Investigation of causes of FUO (fever of unknown origin) in children
Hyun Seok Park, Sun Ju Im, Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(12):1282-1286.   Published online December 15, 2006
Purpose : The causes of prolonged fever have changed during the years and are influenced by age, geographic location and availability of diagnostic facilities/techniques. The aim of the present study was to determine the causes of prolonged fever, to know the proportion and outcomes of undiagnosed children. Methods : We reviewed patients with fever persisting for more than 2 weeks in...
Case Report
A case of PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) syndrome
Joo Hee Chae, A Rum Hwang, So Hyun Park, Byung Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(9):991-995.   Published online September 15, 2006
PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) syndrome is one of the causes of periodic fever in pediatrics with unknown etiology. It is characterized by abrupt onset of fever, malaise, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis without long-term sequelae. Laboratory findings of this sporadic and nonhereditary syndrome are so non-specific that the diagnosis is based on clinical findings. Oral...
Original Article
Clinical analysis of febrile infants and children presenting to the pediatric emergency department
Byeong Gon Kwak, Hyun Oh Jang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(8):839-844.   Published online August 15, 2006
Purpose : We studied clinical patterns of the febrile infants and children presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department(ED) in the general pediatric population. Method : We analyzed 1,764 infants and children who had a history of measured body temperature of 38.3℃ or higher, before or after arrival at Pediatric ED of Ilsan Paik Hospital from September 2004 to August 2005....
A Study for Accuracy and Usefulness of Tympanic Membrane and Forehead Thermometers
Ki Wook Yun, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(8):820-825.   Published online August 15, 2005
Purpose : The presence and degree of fever in children is a useful indicator of illness. This project aimed to assess the accuracy and usefulness of infrared tympanic membrane(TM) & forehead feverscan thermometers for measuring children's temperatures. Methods : Data were obtained from 1,050 children with a median age of 4.5 years. They visited the pediatric clinics at Chung-Ang University Yongsan...
Case Report
Analysis of Affecting Factors for Cortisol Level in Cord Blood
Eun Jung Kim, Chang Yoo Lee, Yeon Gyun Oh, Hyang Suk Yun, Jong Duck Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(2):188-191.   Published online February 15, 2003
Tsutsugamushi fever is a serious febrile disease outwardly similar to malaria and various arboviral infections. The endemic area is Asia-Pacific. This disease are generally associated with disturbed habitats favoring large populations of vector larval trombiculid mites. Therapy with tetracycline, chloramphenicol or ciprofloxacin is currently recommanded. Unfortunately these drugs is suboptimal for children and pregnant women. Recently, azithromycin has been proven...
Original Article
Usefulness of Low Risk Criteria for Serious Bacterial Infection Among Febrile Infants Younger than Three Months of Age
So Hyun Kim, Ji Ah Jung, Hae-Soon Kim, Eun Sun Yoo, Sejung Sohn, Jeong Wan Seo, Seung Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(8):967-972.   Published online August 15, 2002
Purpose : A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of low risk criteria for identifying febrile infants younger than three months unlikely to have serious bacterial infection. Methods : We conducted a retrospective study of 527 infants younger than three month with a axillary temperature ≥37.4℃. If they met the following all four criteria, appear well, WBC 5,000- 20,000/mm3,...
Case Report
Two Cases of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Due to Status Epilepticus with High Fever
Song Heui Shin, Kyung-Rye Moon, Eun-Young Kim, Young-Il Rho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(9):1062-1065.   Published online September 15, 2001
Status epilepticus has been occasionally reported as a cause of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC), but little is known regarding the pathogenesis of this uncommon association. The occurrence of DIC in status epilepticus may be related to widespread endothelial damage secondary to seizure-induced hyperpyrexia or status epilepticus due to high fever. We experienced two cases of status epilepticus accompanying fever in which laboratory data demonstrated...
Original Article
Clinical Trends in Acute Rheumatic Fever in Korean Children : Mailed Questionnaire Survey from 1988 to 1997 (Compared with 1978-1987)
Hyeon-Ho Kang, Sung-Ho Cha, Kyong-Su Lee, Sang-Bum Lee, Tae-Chan Kwon, Young-Chang Tockgo, Chang-Sung Son, Jin-A Son, Hee-Ju Park, Yong-Soo Yun, Jung-Yun Choi, Chang-Hwi Kim, Chul-Ho Kim, Tai-Ju Hwang, Jae-Sook Ma, Chan-Uhng Joo, Nam-Su Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(10):1381-1391.   Published online October 15, 1999
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of acute rheumatic fever(ARF) among children in Korea and to describe trends in its clinical characteristics compared to data from a previous study(1978-1987). Methods : A mailed questionnaire survey sent to the pediatric departments of 13 general hospitals in Korea requested the total number of patients with ARF and...
Case Report
A Case of Rheumatic Fever Associated with Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Jeong Kyung Seo, Un Seok Nho, Eun Jeong Kim, Chur Woo Yoo, Chul Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(8):1170-1174.   Published online August 15, 1999
It is well known that both acute glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever are a common sequelae of group A streptococcal infection. However, their simultaneous occurrence is uncommon. Only a few cases have been reported because they are different in epidemiologic, clinical, serologic and immunopathogenic characteristics. We experienced a 10-year-old boy who presented the manifestation of acute rheumatic fever and acute poststreptococcal...
Original Article
The Risk Factor of Bacteremia in Children with Febrile Neutropenia due to Chemotherapy
Tae-Hong Kim, Young-Ho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(5):677-683.   Published online May 15, 1998
Purpose : We evaluated the easily-assessable risk factors to predict bacteremia in children with febrile neutropenia, who received anticancer chemotherapy. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 46 children who had febrile neutropenia caused by anticancer chemotherapy between March, 1993 and February, 1997. The patients with localized infection on presentation were not eligible for this study. We evaluated the correlation between bacteremia and...
Case Report
A Case of Q Fever : Person-to-Person Transmission
So Jung An, Ja Wook Koo, Chul Young Chung, Won Young Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(1):120-124.   Published online January 15, 1998
Q fever is an important zoonosis caused by the rickrttsial organism, Coxiella burnetii. It is a very contagious organism which humans can contact by inhaling aerosolized organisms. Most commonly it leads to an acute flu-like illness. The diagnosis is usually confirmed serologically using a complement fixation or microimmunofluorescence test. Previous reports suggest that case -to - case in men is rare. We report person-to-person...
Original Article
The Effect of Bundling on Neonatal Body Temperature
Ja Kyoung Lee, Eun Jung Kim, Hea Kyoung Lee, Young Hee Yu, Hyun Sook Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(1):26-32.   Published online January 15, 1998
Purpose : Fever in newborn might be an indicator of serious bacterial infection. Differentiating environmental from disease-related temperature elevations in newborn is clinically important, because neonate with environment-related temperature elevation might be subjected to an unnecessary work-up to detect occult disease. But there are exists no consistent conclusions about environmental effect in previous literatures. We prospectively evaluated the effect of...
The Characteristics of Febrile Neutropenia Induced by Chemotherapy
Hyung Joo Sohn, Kee Hwan Yoo, Guang Chul Lee, Sun Gyum Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(10):1443-1452.   Published online October 15, 1997
Purpose : The development of fever in neutropenic cancer patients is frequently a sign of infection. Infection remains the major cause of death in the patient with cancer, primarily as a consequence of the profound alterations of normal host defences which result from the malignancy, its treatment or both. Fever in the patient with neutropenia is generally recognized as an indication of the need...
The Diagnostic Value of Liver Biopsy in Children with Fever of Unknown Origin and Hepatosplenomegaly
Sue Mee Park, Yeon Ho Choi, Jong Jae Kim, Hoan Jong Lee, Jeong Kee Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(11):1544-1555.   Published online November 15, 1996
Purpose : Although many strides have been made in the radiological and laboratory diagnosis, the liver biopsy is still considered an important tool for the diagnosis of liver disease. We report our experience that histologic investigation of the liver was essential searching for the etiologic diagnosis in eight children with fever of unknowm origin and hepatosplenomegaly, who's diagnosis were not documented by other diagnostic...
The Change of Serum Cholesterol level in Children with Fever
Mi Ja Park, Jae Yoon Kim, Jae Wook Ko, Don Hee Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(7):908-914.   Published online July 15, 1996
Purpose : This study was undertaken to assess the change of the serum cholesterol level according to the duration of fever in children. Methods : A retrospective study presents data on fasting serum cholesterol assessed 346 children aged from 3 to 14 years, admitted to National Medical Center from Jan. 1992 to Jun. 1994 due to febrile disease. These patients were divided into three...
Case Report
A Case of Q Fever with Agranulocytosis
Seong Woo Choi, Ja Wook Koo, Heung Dong Kim, Churl Young Chung, Won Young Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(6):848-852.   Published online June 15, 1995
A 9-year old boy suffered from fever 20 days. He lived in rural area near farms rearing cows, goats, sheep. He had fever for 20 days with mild respiratory symptom, hepatosplenomegaly and agranulocytosis. Coxiella burnetii infection was confirmed by the blood culture and demonstration of the specific antibodies in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Four weeks later, agranulocytosis was improved...
Original Article
Changes of Clinical Patterns of the Acute Rheumatic Fever in Korea(Compared report of 1973-1985 with that of 1986-1992)
Hye Sun Yoon, Min Young Park, Wan Young Shin, Byong Soo Sco, Sung Ho Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(4):470-481.   Published online April 15, 1995
Purpose : The annual incidence of acute rheumatic fever in Korea was not changing during 1980 to 1989 from Nationwide survey in 1991 in spite of talking about scanty outbreak among doctors in recent year.The proportion of patients with acute rheumatic fever among the entire pediatirc inpatients each year was approximately 0.3% and did not change significantly throughout the...
Evaluation of Fever Reducing Methods in Children
Soo Young Lim, Hwa Jeong Lee, Seung Hee Mok, Heui Jeong Kwon, In Sil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(6):746-751.   Published online June 15, 1994
The efficacy of acetaminophen, sponging plus acetaminophen, and sponging alone as method of lowering body temperature was compared in 108 children aged 8 weeks to 5 years who presented with an axillary temperature of 38.5C or greater during the period from January 1993 to April 1993. The following results were obtained. 1) The male to female ratio was 2.5:1 and clinical diagnosis...
The Clinical Study of 10 Cases of Tsutsugamushi Fever
Dong Gyu Lee, Sung Hak Kim, Byung Keun Han, Kyung Ho Lee, Cheol Hee Hwang, Moon Ki Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(5):689-694.   Published online May 15, 1994
In Korean, there has been an increasing concern on rickettsiosis as a possile common cause of unkonwn febrile illness since Tsutsugamushi fever among koreans was reported first in1986. We experienced 10 cases of Tsutsugamushi fever ocurring in the Mokpo area during the period of 3 months(Oct. to Dec.) in 1990, which were diagnosed clinically and serologically by...
Acute Tubular Necrosis Associated with typhoid Fever
Pill-Jin Shin, Ho-Sung Lee, Byoung-Soo Cho, Chang-Il Ahn, Mun-Ho Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(2):250-256.   Published online February 15, 1994
Acute tubular necrosis has been rarely reported as a complication of typhoid fever in the literature. We experienced four cases of acute tubular necrosis associated with typhoid fever in children. Patients showed significant titer of widal reaction associated with acute renal failure and one of them rised in 2 months after onset of clinical symptoms. Renal biopsy findings were compatible with acute...
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