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Review Article
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance in children
Kyungchul Song, Ho-Seong Kim, Hyun Wook Chae
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of liver diseases characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. The global prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in both adults and children. In Korea, the prevalence of pediatric NAFLD increased from 8.2% in 2009 to 12.1% in 2018 according to a national surveillance study. For early screening...
Early menarche and its consequence in Korean female: reducing fructose intake could be one solution
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):12-20.   Published online May 14, 2020
In Korea, the average age of menarche has declined sharply. Early menarche is associated with psychosocial and behavioral problems and cardiometabolic disease. Excess fructose intake has been suggested as one cause of early menarche in recent studies, so reducing fructose intake may be one solution.
Original Article
Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents
Ozlem Kara
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):110-114.   Published online March 6, 2020
Question: Does subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children and adolescents affect metabolic parameters?
Finding: Insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG levels were higher and the HDL-C level was lower in patients with SH.
Meaning: A clear association is observed between SH, and insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in obese children. It can be said that the TSH may be evaluated as a metabolic risk factor in obese patients.
Adolescence Medicine
Serum alanine aminotransferase levels are closely associated with metabolic disturbances in apparently healthy young adolescents independent of obesity
Ki Eun Kim, Kyung Suk Baek, Sol Han, Jung Hyun Kim, Youn Ho Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(2):48-54.   Published online November 23, 2018

Purpose: Liver metabolism plays a pivotal role in the development of metabolic disorders. We aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory risk factors associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in young adolescents from an urban population in Korea. Methods: A population of 120 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12–13 years was included in the cross-sectional design study; 58 were overweight or obese...
Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein plasma levels as a biomarker of obesity-related insulin resistance in adolescents
Ki Eun Kim, Young Sun Cho, Kyung Suk Baek, Lan Li, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Jung Hyun Kim, Ho-Seong Kim, Youn Ho Sheen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):231-238.   Published online May 31, 2016

Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is a 65-kDa acute phase protein, derived from the liver, which is present in high concentrations in plasma. Data regarding the association between circulating plasma LBP levels and obesity-related biomarkers in the pediatric population are scarce. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in plasma LBP levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess...

Review Article
Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age
Won Kyoung Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):1-7.   Published online January 22, 2016

Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life....

Original Article
Serum leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels in obese children and their correlations with insulin resistance
Min Young Park, Sun A Ahn, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, Seung Hoon Hahn, Min Ho Jung, Byung-Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(7):766-771.   Published online July 15, 2009
Purpose : The objective of this study was to compare the levels of adipocytokines in obesity group with those in control group and examine their correlation with insulin resistance. Methods : We enrolled 36 obese children (male:female [M:F]=17:19; age, 9.3±1.9 yrs) with ≥95th percentile body mass indexes (BMIs) (obesity group) and 35 healthy children (M:F=16:19; age, 9.1±2.1 yrs) with 25th-75th percentile...
Development of metabolic syndrome and its correlation with insulin resistance in adult patients with Turner syndrome
Joo Hwa Kim, Min Jae Kang, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(3):370-375.   Published online March 15, 2009
Purpose : The risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome (TS) patients is high. We analyzed metabolic factors in adults with TS and evaluated the metabolic risk of insulin resistance. Methods : Forty-three adults with TS were enrolled. The frequency of MS and the values of the metabolic factors were analyzed. Patients were divided into insulin...
Review Article
Consequences of being born small for gestational age : More than being small
Eun-Gyong Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):152-158.   Published online February 15, 2009
Reduced fetal growth is independently associated with increased risk of health problems in later life, particularly type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Insulin resistance appears to be a key component underlying these metabolic complications. It is suggested that detrimental fetal environment may program insulin resistance syndrome. An insulin-resistant genotype may also result in both low birth weight and insulin resistance...
Original Article
The relationship between leptin adiponectin ratio and insulin resistance in healthy children
Gae-Hyun Ahn, Shin-Hye Kim, Eun-Gyong Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(3):256-261.   Published online March 15, 2008
Purpose : Leptin and adiponectin are two representative adipocytokines. Leptin increases, but adiponectin decreases, with obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to study the relationship between the leptin/adiponectin ratio and insulin resistance in healthy children. Methods : Seventy-seven healthy children (36 boys and 41 girls) were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and the percentage of weight for...
Alteration of insulin resistance and serum adiponectin levels after one year follow-up of obese children and adolescents
Min Jee Jeoung, Jung Yeon Shin, Soo Young Kim, Jung Hwa Lee, Kee-Hyoung Lee, Joo Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(8):767-773.   Published online August 15, 2007
Purpose : Obesity has become a pandemic and especially the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past years. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by the expected morbidities such as hyperlipidemia, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. We evaluated the pattern of alteration in the body mass index (BMI), serum adiponectin concentration, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and complication rates after...
Effects of growth hormone treatment on glucose metabolism in idiopathic short stature
Seung Yeon Kwon, Duk-Hee Kim, Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(6):665-671.   Published online June 15, 2006
Purpose : To study the effects of growth hormone(GH) treatment on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in children with idiopathic short stature(ISS). Methods : Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after GH treatment(0.6-0.7 IU/kg/week) in 20 patients with ISS. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment(HOMA). Results : During OGTT, the mean...
Serum Ferritin as a Risk Factor in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Jung Hyun Kim, Ho Seong Kim, Duk Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(11):1239-1243.   Published online November 15, 2005
Purpose : Iron accumulation interferes with hepatic insulin extraction and affects insulin synthesis and secretion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between serum ferritin and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods : We compared the serum ferritin level among 18 patients in an impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) group, 36 in a type 1 diabetes group, eight in...
Serum Insulin, Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Levels in Obese Adolescents
Jung Hyun Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(11):1172-1178.   Published online November 15, 2005
Purpose : Childhood Obesity is increasing throughout the world, and it is known to incur many diseases especially in later life such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3(IGFBP-3) and know if these factors are useful in predicting cardiovascular...
Affecting Factors of Insulin Resistance in Obese Children and Adolescents
Duk Hee Kim, Ho Seon Eun, In Kyung Choi, Ho Seung Kim, Bong Soo Cha, Dong Kee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1076-1081.   Published online October 15, 2005
Purpose : Insulin resistance is the most important risk factor linked to the development of impaired glucose tolerance(IGT), diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in childhood and adolescent obesity, The purpose of this study was to see whether insulin resistance of obese adolescent is higher than that of obese children. and to analyze gender difference and affecting factors of insulin resistance. Methods...
Serum Adiponectin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Obese Children
Hee-Sun Lee, Jin Lee, Min-Joo Kang, Byung-Min Choi, Kee-Hyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(5):481-487.   Published online May 15, 2005
Purpose : Adiponectin, adipose tissue-specific protein, has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. It has been found to have a negative correlation with obesity and to play a role in modulating glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Serum adiponectin concentrations are decreased in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the difference in adiponectin levels between obese and non-obese children, and...
Prevalence of the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Children
Sung Woog Hwang, Duk Hee Kim, Ho Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(1):13-20.   Published online January 15, 2005
Purpose : Obesity is, along with metabolic syndrome, closely related with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study tried to evaluate the prevalence of nonalcoholic liver disease in obese children and verify the factors associated with the disease. Methods : Two hundred and seventy nine children who showed a body mass index of 95 percentile over the baseline in health examinations...
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children
Jin Ha Chang, Duk Hee Kim, Ho-Seong Kim, In Kyoung Choi, My Young Cheong, Dong Kee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(11):1149-1156.   Published online November 15, 2004
Purpose : Obesity has been known to be a cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, and along with coronary artery disease and diabetes, is associated with metabolic syndrome(MS). This study aimed to ascertain the cause and prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents. Methods : Two hundred and seventy-seven school children, who showed more than a 95th percentile of body...
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