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Original Article
Iron deficiency anemia as a predictor of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease
Sohyun Kim, Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):301-306.   Published online February 8, 2019

Purpose: Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) are the most important complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a prevalent micronutrient deficiency and its association with KD remains unknown. We hypothesized that presence of IDA could be a predictor of CAA. Methods: This retrospective study included 173 KD patients, divided into 2 groups according to absence (group 1) and presence...
The usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children
Se Hoon Yoon, Dong Sup Kim, Seung Taek Yu, Sae Ron Shin, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):15-19.   Published online January 31, 2015

Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a truncated extracellular form of the membrane transferrin receptor produced by proteolysis. Concentrations of serum sTfR are related to iron status and erythropoiesis in the body. We investigated whether serum sTfR levels can aid in diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children.


Ninety-eight patients with IDA were enrolled and were classified according to...

Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in children with iron deficiency anemia
Jung Won Yoon, Sung Woo Kim, Eun Gyong Yoo, Moon Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(6):206-211.   Published online June 21, 2012

The increasing prevalence of breast feeding has led to concerns about vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We evaluated the prevalence of VDD in a population of Korean children with IDA and assessed the risk factors for VDD in these children.


A total of 79 children who were diagnosed with IDA were prospectively surveyed from April...

Review Article
Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses
Jin Soo Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(7):282-286.   Published online July 31, 2011

Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to...

Case Report
A case of anemia caused by combined vitamin B12 and iron deficiency manifesting as short stature and delayed puberty
Seung Min Song, Keun Wook Bae, Hoi-Soo Yoon, Ho Joon Im, Jong-Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(5):661-665.   Published online May 31, 2010

Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from inadequate dietary intake is rare in children in the modern era because of improvements in nutritional status. However, such anemia can be caused by decreased ingestion or impaired absorption and/or utilization of vitamin B12. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with short stature, prepubertal sexual maturation, exertional dyspnea, and severe...

Original Article
Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants
Youn Soo Jun, Ho Il Bang, Seung Taek Yu, Sae Ron Shin, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):392-396.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to...
Case Report
Perianastomotic ulceration presenting with long-term iron deficiency anemia and growth failure: A case report and review of the literature
Kyung Ji Kang, Eun Ha Kim, Eun Young Jung, Woo-Hyun Park, Yu-Na Kang, Ae Suk Kim, Jin-Bok Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(1):89-92.   Published online January 15, 2010
Perianastomotic ulceration (PAU) rarely occurs after small bowel resection in infancy. Since the understanding of its pathogenesis is incomplete, an effective method of treatment has not yet been discovered. We report the first case in Korea of a 10-year-old girl with chronic iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and growth failure who was diagnosed with PAU at colonoscopy. Seven years were required...
Original Article
Weaning food practice in children with iron deficiency anemia
Joo Hee Chang, Woo Sik Cheong, Yong Hoon Jun, Soon Ki Kim, Hung Sik Kim, Sang Kyu Park, Kyung Ha Ryu, Eun Sun Yoo, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Kun soo Lee, Kwang Chul Lee, Jae Young Lim, Du Young Choi, Byung Kyu Choe, Eun Jin Choi, Bong Soon Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):159-166.   Published online February 15, 2009
Purpose : Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in children on a weaning diet. We investigated weaning practices in infants and children, as well as their mothers' knowledge about weaning. Methods : We investigated 129 children with IDA and 166 without IDA (aged 6-36 months) who had visited 10 university hospitals between March 2006...
Case Report
A case of restless legs syndrome in a child presenting with growing pains
Dong Soon Kim, Hong Beom Shin, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(11):1222-1227.   Published online November 15, 2008
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sleep disorder in adults characterized by the following diagnostic criteria: an urge to move that is usually associated with unpleasant sensations and symptoms that are worse at rest, relieved by movement, and most severe at night. The definite diagnosis of RLS in children is stricter and consists of self-description of leg discomfort...
Original Article
Reticulocyte hemoglobin content for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in young children with acute infection
Jon Soo Kim, Jun Seok Choi, Doo Young Choi, Chur Woo You
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):827-833.   Published online August 15, 2008
Purpose : Early identification of iron deficiency in young children is essential to prevent damaging long-term consequences. It is often difficult for the pediatrician to know which indices should be used when diagnosing these conditions especially in hospitalized young children. This study investigated the clinical significances of reticulocyte hemoglobin content in young children with acute infection. Methods : We studied...
A study of mothers knowledge of weaning of infants with iron-deficiency anemia
Sung Jin Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Joo Hee Chang, Yong Hun Jun, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(5):468-473.   Published online May 15, 2008
Purpose : Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is still one of the most common nutrient deficiency disorders, despite improvements in general health and nutrition. This study was designed to investigate the diagnostic values of hematological profiles, including the level of ferritin, and to evaluate the knowledge of mothers on weaning practices for infants and young children with IDA. Methods : This study...
The iron status and the relationship between iron deficiency and body mass index in middle school girls
Hee Youn Han, Chang Joo Hee, Hae Sun Shim, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Hwan Cheol Kim, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(11):1174-1179.   Published online November 15, 2006
Purpose : Obesity and iron deficiency are common nutritional problems. Obese children are known to have iron deficiencies, but one presented opposite opinion in Korea. This study investigated the prevalence of obesity and iron deficiency in Incheon and the relationship between iron deficiency and obesity. Methods : Physical measurement and hematologic examinations were done a 764 healthy female students aged 14...
Clinical Significance of Immature Reticulocyte Fraction and Reticulocyte Cellular Indices in Pediatric Anemia Patients
Young Seo, Hye Lim Jung, Jae Won Shim, Deok Su Kim, Jeong Yeon Shim, Moon Soo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(3):284-291.   Published online March 15, 2005
Purpose : Flow cytometric automated reticulocyte analysis is a superior method to manual reticulocyte counting, with respect to precision and sensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis is able to measure immature reticulocyte fraction(IRF) and reticulocyte cellular indices(RCI : cell hemoglobin content : CHr, mean cell volume : MCVr, cell hemoglobin concentration mean : CHCMr, distribytion width : RDWr, HDWr, CHDWr). In...
Clinical Lecture
Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Anemia in Children
Young Tak Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):121-125.   Published online February 15, 2005
Anemia can be defined as a reduction in blood hemoglobin concentration or red cell mass relative to age matched normal values. Clinical presentation may range from obviously pale and lethargy to an incidental finding during screening of an otherwise well appearing child. The differential diagnosis of anemia in each instance is broad with numerous possible etiologies. A careful history and...
Original Article
Nutritional Assessment and the Effectiveness of Dietary Counseling in Infants and Young Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia
Ja Kyoung Kim, Eun Young Ko, Yu Jin Lee, Yong Hun Jun, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(1):11-16.   Published online January 15, 2003
Purpose : Iron deficiency is still the most common nutrient deficient disorder despite the improvement in general health and nutrition. This study is designed to evaluate the dietary history of infants and young children with iron deficiency anemia(IDA) and the effects of nutritional counseling. Methods : This study was conducted on 120 children from 6 to 36 months of age with...
Clinical Features and Endoscopic Findings of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children
Seon Hee Kim, Cheol Ho Chang, Churl Young Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(10):1359-1364.   Published online October 15, 1998
Purpose : Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is recognized as the cause of primary or unexplained gastrointestinal diseases in children as well as in adults. However, it is unclear whether H. pylori causes specific clinical symptoms or diseases. Therefore, we studied the clinical manifestations associated with H. pylori infection in consecutive symptomatic children undergoing diagnostic endoscopy. Methods : This study included 42...
Milk Feeding Methods and the Changes of Serum Lactate Level in Infants with Iron Deficiency Anemia
Du Young Choi, Jong Duck Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(4):514-520.   Published online April 15, 1998
Purpose : Infants undergo critical and rapid stages of growth. Optimal nutrition during this period is therefore essential. Iron deficiency is especially impotant and common. The aim of this study was to determine the present status and problems of milk feeding methods in infants with iron deficiency anemia and, futhermore, to develop appropriate feeding guidelines for adequate iron nutrition. Latate is the end product...
Case Report
Four Cases of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Helicobacter pylori Infection
Houng Soung, Cheol Ho Chang, Churl Young Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(8):1173-1178.   Published online August 15, 1996
Helicobacter pylori has become apparent that this organism is an etiologic agent of gastrits and peptic ulcer disease in humans. We present four cases of iron deficiency anemia, not specific causes, in 3 males and 1 female patients with Helicobacter pylori infection, who were treated with antibiotics and iron supplemented therapy. Diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsies and hematologic findings. A brief review of related...
Original Article
The Correlation between the Duration of Breast Feeding and Iron Deficiency Anemia(IDA)
Yee Ja Kang, Ha Sin Park, Hae Jin Choeh, Kyuchul Choeh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(11):1453-1459.   Published online November 15, 1995
Purpose : Iron deficiency anemia(IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency. in young infants. This study was designed to determine a correlation between the duration of breast feeding and the severity of IDA, and to determine the recommending start point of iron fortified diet. Methods : The correlation between duration of breast feeding, and severity of iron deficiency. and IDA was...
Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infants
Woon Ja Chung, Kue Sook Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Shin Na Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(9):1253-1261.   Published online September 15, 1995
Purpose : To study the incidence of iron deficiency anemia we conducted blood tests with questionnaire regrarding weaning status. We tried to figure out the relation between iron deficiency anemia and financial and educational levels of their parents. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of screening for iron deficiency anemia at well baby clinic and educate mothers...
A Study on Nutritional Status of Iron and Lipids in Infants
Kwang-Hea Choi, Son Moon Shin, Kee-Hwa Oh, Jung Sook Seo, Kwang-Soo Kim, Yung-Sun Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(3):297-305.   Published online March 15, 1995
Purpose : This study was conducted to get baseline data to establish a guideline for the infant nutrition by observing the feeding practice and nutritional intake during infancy and evaluationg the nutritional status of iron and lipids at 12-month-old infants. Methods : This survery was cnducted from July to November, 1992. Subjects were healthy infants who were brought to Yeungnam University...
Case Report
Longterm Follow Up of A Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis
So Young Lee, Jeong Kee Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(1):104-109.   Published online January 15, 1995
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis(EG) is a rare disease characterised histologically by eosinophilic infiltration of the gut wall. The clinical features depend on which layer and location are involved. Patients may be divided into three clinical groups as predominantly mucosal, muscle layer, or subserosal disease based on the histological site of eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall, although there is lften considerable overlap....
Original Article
The Impact of Large Amount Whole Cow's Milk Intake on Iron Status in Early Childhood
Sung Yoon Byun, Mi Ran Park, In Sang Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(7):968-974.   Published online July 15, 1993
To determine the impact of intake large amount whole cow's milk (WCM) on iron status during early childhood(18~36 months), selected indices of complete blood count (CBC) and iron status were compared between the WCM large amount intake group (n=20) and small amount intake group (n=20). WCM large amount intake children's mean hemoglobin and mean hematocrit were 9.6¡¾1.7g/dl and 30.8¡¾4.5% respectively. These...
Whole Cow's milk Related iron Deficiency Anemia in Early Childhood.
In Sang Jeon, Heon Seok Han, Hyo Seop Ahn, Jin Q Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(10):1374-1379.   Published online October 31, 1990
To study the relationship between large amount of whole cow’s milk (WCM) intake and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in early childhood, we carried out the study on 9 children with IDA, who were fed WCM, about 1,000 ml over 3 months, experienced at the department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, during 5 months from March 1989 to July 1989. The results were as...
Therapeutic Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia.
Dong Suk Lee, Chang Hee Han, Kun Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(6):799-806.   Published online June 30, 1990
A prospective study was conducted to see the therapeutic effect of iron deficiency anemia on a different oral iron doses. Studied patients consisted of 48 children with iron deficiency anemia who were admitted to our Pediatric Department during January 1988 - September 1989. Three groups were consisted with Group A (element iron dose 3 mg/kg/d, 16 cases), Group B (3 mg/kg/d with vitamin C...
Severe Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Result of Congenital Hiatal Hernia.
H Y Lee, H G Ham, M K Namgoong, B K Lim, J S Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(2):250-254.   Published online February 28, 1989
Congenital diaphragmatic anomaly is a rare congenital malformation. A 6 year old boy with pale appearance and complaining of weakness for several months was diagnosed as having iron deficiency anemia as a result of congenital hiatal hernia. The diagnosis was confirmed by chest X.ray, esophagogram, upper gastrointestinal series and bone maπow biopsy After the hernia was successfully corrected by operation, the anemia was disappeared. Congenital...
A Study on Red Cell Distribution Width of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Childhood.
Hong Ryang Kil, Young Hun Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1988;31(10):1321-1327.   Published online October 31, 1988
A hematologic study was undertaken on 60 cases of control group and 53 cases of iron deficiency anemia group who visited the outpatient department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University Hospital from January, 1984 to July, 1987 The results were as follows: 1) In 60 cases of control group between 1 to 15 year, hemoglobin was 12.5±1.7 gm/dl, MCV 82.4± 3.8 fl, and RDW 13.1 ±1.1% and...
A Case of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Hypoproteinemia.
Seong Ho Kim, Woo Kill Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1988;31(8):1054-1058.   Published online August 31, 1988
Severe iron deficiency anemia is occasionally accompanied by hypoproteinemia and edema. There is evidence that the hypoproteinemia is caused by increased intestinal loss of serum protein. We experienced a case, 1 year and 6 months old female patient with generalized edema, diagnosed as iron deficiency anemia with hypoproteinemia. After treatment with ferrous iron preparation, generalized edema was subsided, and hemoglobin value and serum protein...
Iron Deficiency Anemia in Childhood and Diagnostic Significance of Serum Ferritin.
Dong Hyub Lee, Ki Hong Park, Kyu Chul Choi, Yong Mook Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1988;31(5):577-583.   Published online May 31, 1988
In order to elucidate clinical and laboratory findings of the iron deficiency anemia(IDA) in childhood along with diagnostic significance of serum ferritin, 207 patients were analyzed retrospec- tively, who were hospitalized at Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University Hospital from January 1981 to December 1986. The results were as follows; 1) The incidence of IDA in In-Patient was 1.6%. 2) The sex ratio of male to female was...
A study in The Changes of Platelet Count in iron Deficiency Anemia among Children.
Nam Ae Kim, Kir Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(10):1015-1021.   Published online October 31, 1982
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional anemia among chidren. A study on the changes of platelet count in IDA was conducted with 83 children who were diagnosed at the Severance Hospital in a 5 J/2-year pericd from Jan. 1975 to Jun. 1981. The results are summarized as follows. 1. IDA was most common among chidren younger than 2-years(61%) due to nutritional deficiency. It...
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