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Original Article
Cardiology
Effect of face mask on pulmonary artery pressure during echocardiography in children and adolescents
Alireza Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Sabri, Zohreh Sadat Navabi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(3):161-167.   Published online January 23, 2024
Question: Can face masks alter pulmonary pressure in children and adolescents with and without congenital heart disease?
Findings: Mask removal during echocardiography (ECHO) reduced pulmonary pressure.
Meaning: These findings suggest that face masks should be removed during ECHO in children and adolescents.
Review Article
Updates in neonatal resuscitation: routine use of laryngeal masks as an alternative to face masks
Eun Song Song, Ga Won Jeon
In neonatal resuscitation:
· Laryngeal masks are recommended when endotracheal intubation or positive-pressure ventilation fails.
· Laryngeal masks are useful even during chest compressions.
· Laryngeal masks aid neonates >34 weeks’ gestation and/or with a birth weight >2 kg.
· Main usage barriers include limited experience (81%), preference for endotracheal tubes (57%), and lack of awareness (56%).
· Second-generation laryngeal masks have a built-in esophageal drainage tube that prevents regurgitation into the glottis, and an orogastric tube can be inserted within the esophageal drainage tube to protect against gastric inflation.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2023.00619    [Epub ahead of print]
Original Article
Gastroenterology
Association between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and child’s body mass index at preschool age
Jeewon Shin, Yoowon Kwon, Ju Hee Kim, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):76-81.   Published online November 30, 2022
Question: What are the risk factors of newborn birth weight? Does gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index affect childhood weight?
Finding: Excess maternal weight gain increases the risk of overweight/obesity, newborn birth weight, and child body mass index at 4–6 years.
Meaning: Maternal weight control before and during pregnancy should be well controlled.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Mediation effect of cord blood cortisol levels between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and birth weight: a hospital-based cross-sectional study
Nisanth Selvam, Jayashree K, Prasanna Mithra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):500-506.   Published online July 29, 2022
Question: What is the association between cord blood cortisol and maternal weight, birth weight, and cord blood lipid profile?
Finding: Cord blood cortisol levels did not influence the relationship between maternal weight changes or birth weight. Maternal weight changes, birth weight, and cortisol levels altered the cord blood lipid profile.
Meaning: Our findings may aid United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 (Good Health and Well-Being) achievement by 2030.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis
Siyoung Choe, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Deokjin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):98-107.   Published online November 23, 2021
Question: What is the overall effect of obesity interventions among Korean children and what affects their effectiveness?
Finding: Interventions were strongly favored over controls. Interventions including at least one physical activity component were significantly better than those that did not. Sex, age, baseline weight category, intervention duration, and the number of intervention components were not significant.
Meaning: Future obesity interventions for Korean children must seek to include physical activity components.
Systematic review and meta-analysis
General Pediatrics
The maternal prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saied Bashirian, Salman Khazaei, Zohreh Basiri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(10):374-379.   Published online June 14, 2019
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have a major impact on individuals, families, and society. Therefore identification risk factors of ADHD are a public health priority.
Purpose: This is meta-analysis evaluated the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of ADHD among the resulting offspring. Methods: The search identified studies published through December 2018 in the PubMed, Web...
Review Article
Endocrinology
The adiposity rebound in the 21st century children: meaning for what?
Min Jae Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(12):375-380.   Published online December 6, 2018
With the increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide, early adiposity rebound, which is known to have a strong association with obesity, has recently been a focus of research. Early adiposity rebound is conventionally known to have a close relationship with non-communicable diseases. However, novel insights into early adiposity rebound have implied an acceleration of growth and puberty,...
Original Article
Gastroenterology
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese and nonobese pediatric patients
Eun Jeong Kim, Hyun Jin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(1):30-35.   Published online September 17, 2018

Purpose: Obesity is risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, nonobese patients are also increasingly susceptible to NAFLD. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of obese and nonobese pediatric patients with NAFLD. Methods: We retrospectively studied 68 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD between January 2010 and October 2016 at 10–18 years of age....
Case Report
Allergy
Breast abscess caused by Staphylococcus aureus in 2 adolescent girls with atopic dermatitis
Sung Man Park, Won Sik Choi, YoonSun Yoon, Gee Hae Jung, Chang Kyu Lee, So Hyun Ahn, Yoon Wonsuck, Young Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):200-204.   Published online June 25, 2018

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in children. Patients with AD experience a high rate of colonization of the skin surface by Staphylococcus aureus. Because of a skin barrier defect, there is a potential risk of staphylococcal invasive infection in patients with AD. Here, we present 2 cases of breast abscess caused by S. aureus in 2...

Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Mid-upper-arm circumference as a screening measure for identifying children with elevated body mass index: a study for Pakistan
Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Aslam, Saima Altaf
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):6-11.   Published online January 22, 2018
Purpose

Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is considered an alternative screening method for obesity. The aims of this investigation were to examine the ability of MUAC to correctly identify children with elevated body mass index (BMI) and to determine the best MUAC cutoff point for identification of children with high BMI.

Methods

Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and MUAC) from a cross-sectional sample of 7,921 Pakistani...

Endocrinology
The influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on anthropometric change in girls with central precocious puberty
Jong Wan Yoon, Hyun A Park, Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):395-402.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

The potential effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the weight of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) remains a controversy. We investigated anthropometric changes during and after GnRHa treatment among girls with CPP.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated data from 127 girls with CPP who received GnRHa treatment for ≥2 years. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) values were...

Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein plasma levels as a biomarker of obesity-related insulin resistance in adolescents
Ki Eun Kim, Young Sun Cho, Kyung Suk Baek, Lan Li, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Jung Hyun Kim, Ho-Seong Kim, Youn Ho Sheen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):231-238.   Published online May 31, 2016
Purpose

Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is a 65-kDa acute phase protein, derived from the liver, which is present in high concentrations in plasma. Data regarding the association between circulating plasma LBP levels and obesity-related biomarkers in the pediatric population are scarce. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in plasma LBP levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess...

Association between serum alanine aminotransferase level and obesity indices in Korean adolescents
Moon Bae Ahn, Woo Ri Bae, Kyung Do Han, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, Min Ho Jung, Byung Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(5):165-171.   Published online May 22, 2015
Purpose

To analyze the correlation between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and obesity indices including body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), total fat mass (FM), truncal fat mass (TFM), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in Korean adolescents.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study based on data derived from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). Subjects were...

The association of blood pressure with body mass index and waist circumference in normal weight and overweight adolescents
Young-Hwan Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):79-84.   Published online February 24, 2014
Purpose

Overweight can be defined by the body mass index (BMI) and is likely associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, waist circumference (WC), a central adiposity index, may be a better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk. Studies comparing the effects of BMI and WC on cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure (BP), are rare in adolescents.

Methods

We analyzed...

The relationships of body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage with blood pressure and its hemodynamic determinants in Korean adolescents: a school-based study
Na Young Kim, Young Mi Hong, Jo Won Jung, Nam Su Kim, Chung Il Noh, Young-Hwan Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):526-533.   Published online December 20, 2013
Purpose

Obesity is an important risk factor for hypertension in adolescents. We investigated the relationship of obesity-related indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-height ratio [WHR], and body fat percentage [%BF]) with blood pressure and the hemodynamic determinants of blood pressure in Korean adolescents.

Methods

In 2008, 565 adolescents, aged 12-16 years, were examined. The %BF of the participants was measured by bioelectrical impedance...

Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty
Doosoo Kim, Sung-Yoon Cho, Se-Hyun Maeng, Eun Sang Yi, Yu Jin Jung, Sung Won Park, Young Bae Sohn, Dong-Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(12):481-486.   Published online December 20, 2012
Purpose

Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.

Methods

The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from...

Evaluation of changes in random blood glucose and body mass index during and after completion of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Kyong-Won Bang, Soo Young Seo, Jae Wook Lee, Pil-Sang Jang, Min Ho Jung, Nack-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae-Chul Jeong, Byung Kyu Suh, Hack-Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(4):121-127.   Published online April 30, 2012
Purpose

Improved survival of patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has drawn attention to the potential for late consequences of previous treatments among survivors, including metabolic syndrome. In this study, we evaluated changes in 3 parameters, namely, random blood glucose, body mass index (BMI), and Z score for BMI (Z-BMI), in children with ALL during chemotherapy and after completion of...

Review Article
Secular trends of body sizes in Korean children and adolescents: from 1965 to 2010
Jin Soo Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(11):436-442.   Published online November 30, 2011

An anthropometric survey is one of the most important approaches to use when evaluating the health status of children. Secular trends in body sizes, such as height, weight, head circumference, chest circumference, and body mass index showed significant changes over 40 years in Korea. A series of periodic surveys were conducted in 1967, 1975, 1985, 1997, and 2005 by the...

Original Article
The effectiveness of biochemical indexes for evaluating the nutrition states of children
Jae Kwang Kim, Hyun Seong Jin, Myung Ki Han, Bong Seong Kim, Choong Hwan Cha, Kie Young Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):167-175.   Published online February 15, 2009
Purpose : This study has been conducted to analyze whether the biochemical nutrition indexes might be useful and effective for evaluating the nutrition states of children. Methods : We evaluated 269 children, aged 3-9 years old, who had visited Gangneung Asan Hospital for elective surgery from January 2006 to December 2007, and examined their anthropometric and preoperative laboratory data with...
Prevalence and trends in obesity among Korean children and adolescents in 1997 and 2005
Kyungwon Oh, Myoung Jin Jang, Na Yeoun Lee, Jin Soo Moon, Chong Guk Lee, Myung Hwan Yoo, Young Taek Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(9):950-955.   Published online September 15, 2008
Purpose : The objective of this study was to provide current estimates of the prevalence and examine trends of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Methods : Height and weight measurements from 183,159 (112,974 in 1997, 70,185 in 2005) children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years were obtained via the 1997 and 2005 National Growth Survey. Obesity among...
Review Article
Differential diagnosis of abdominal masses in children
Ki Woong Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):787-791.   Published online August 15, 2008
Enlargement of organs or other solid tissues usually presents as an abdominal mass. Often, abdominal masses in children are found by an unsuspected parent or by a physician during a routine examination. Most masses have no specific signs or symptoms. Abdominal masses in children require immediate attention. History and physical examination may provide clues to the diagnosis. Ultrasound examination is...
Original Article
The novel expression method of pediatric body composition : fat mass index and fat-free mass index
Young Gyu Cho, Jae Heon Kang, Hye Ryoung Song, Kyung A Kim, Ji Hyun Song, Myeong Ho Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(7):629-635.   Published online July 15, 2007
Purpose : This study was conducted to assess the usefulness of fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) as novel expression methods of body composition in children. Methods : A total of 466 Second grade students-248 boys and 218 girls- from all elementary schools the Gwacheon City underwent anthropometric measures including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and biochemical tests. The...
Valproate-associated weight gain and potential predictors in children with epilepsy
Gook Chan Jang, Eun Young Kim, Young Il Rho, Kyung Rye Moon, Sang Kee Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(5):484-488.   Published online May 15, 2007
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and potential predictors of weight gain in older children and teens treated with valproate (VPA) for epilepsy. Methods : Sixty-five subjects aged 8 to 17 years of age, who began VPA treatment between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2004, and who had documented weight and height measurements...
The iron status and the relationship between iron deficiency and body mass index in middle school girls
Hee Youn Han, Chang Joo Hee, Hae Sun Shim, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Hwan Cheol Kim, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(11):1174-1179.   Published online November 15, 2006
Purpose : Obesity and iron deficiency are common nutritional problems. Obese children are known to have iron deficiencies, but one presented opposite opinion in Korea. This study investigated the prevalence of obesity and iron deficiency in Incheon and the relationship between iron deficiency and obesity. Methods : Physical measurement and hematologic examinations were done a 764 healthy female students aged 14...
Review Article
Newborn screening of inherited metabolic disease in Korea
Dong Hwan Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(11):1125-1139.   Published online November 15, 2006
In 1991, the Ministry of Health & Social affairs adopted a nationwide service program for neonatal screening of phenylketonuria, galactosemia, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, histidinemia & congenital hypothyroidism for newborns delivered from low class pregnant women registered in health centers. Government decreased the test items from six to two, PKU & congenital hypothyroidism to increase test numbers with same...
Original Article
Correlation of inhalant MAST on chronically coughing children
Jung Min Yun, Eui Jung Roh, Jae Woo Lim, Eun Jung Choen, Kyoung Og Ko, Young Hyuk Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(6):643-647.   Published online June 15, 2006
Purpose : Recently, incidences of chronic cough with allergic disease have been increased. The identification of specific allergens for chronically coughing children is significant for diagnosis, proper treatment and prevention. The aim of this study was to identify significant contributors for sensitization in chronically coughing children. Methods : A total of 106 children, aged 1-6 years, visiting for chronic cough(>3 weeks),...
Case Report
A case of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome in Korea
Jun Hwa Lee, Zee Ihn Lee, Ho Kyun Kim, Soon Hak Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(2):208-211.   Published online February 15, 2006
Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS) is a rare condition characterized by asymmetry of cerebral hemispheric growth with atrophy on one side, ipsilateral compensatory osseous hypertrophy, and contralateral hemiparesis. We experienced a 17 month-old male who presented with left focal clonic or tonic-clonic seizures accompanied by left hemiparesis and developmental delay. Brain MRIs demonstrated progressive atrophy of the right cerebral hemisphere with dilatation...
Original Article
Molecular-epidemiologic study on outbreak of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in neonatal intensive care unit
Nu-Lee Jun, Mi-Na Kim, Jae-Sim Jeong, Yang-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, Ki-Soo Kim, Soo-Young Pi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(2):150-156.   Published online February 15, 2006
Purpose : The aims of this study included assessment of molecular-epidemiologic features during an outbreak of colonization of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae(ESBL- KPN) and re-evaluation of their colonized status one year later. Methods : Rectal swab cultures for ESBL-KPN from all hospitalized infants and newly admitted infants were obtained during the outbreak of colonization from July to December,...
A Domestic Outbreak of Bacterial Dysentery Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase(ESBL)-producing Shigella sonnei
Hyun Taek Lim, So Hee Lee, Jung Hwa Lee, Jeong Eun Kim, Kyo Sun Kim, Eun Ju Jeong, Seung Hyun Lee, Chang Gyu Kang, Seong Jin Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1107-1115.   Published online October 15, 2005
Purpose : An outbreak of ESBL-producing Shigella sonnei enteritis was unprecedented not only in Korea but throughout the world in the past. We intended to devise a management guideline for ESBL-producing shigellosis based on analysis of clinical manifestations and response to therapy. Methods : We analyzed 103 patients who were admitted to the hospital with acute GI symptoms and were...
Clinical Evaluation of Tissue Biopsy for Children with Neck Mass; A Single Center Study
You Sook Youn, Hye Won Yoon, Sun Young Kim, Ji Young Sul, Chang Jun Song, Jin Man Kim, Kyung Duk Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(8):839-845.   Published online August 15, 2005
Purpose : Neck masses, in pediatric population, derive from a multitude of congenital, inflammatory, or neoplastic diseases. The majority of these masses represent benign conditions. However, thorough clinical evaluation is required to rule out malignant diseases. We evaluated the causes, clinical characteristics and outcomes of children with neck masses who underwent tissue biopsy. Methods : A total of 28 medical records...
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