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Review Article
Infection
Pathogenetic and etiologic considerations of febrile seizures
Ji Yoon Han, Seung Beom Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):46-53.   Published online January 13, 2023
· Inflammatory responses accompanying fever increase neuronal excitability in the central nervous system, which in turn provokes seizures.
· Fever in children with febrile seizures is usually caused by common respiratory viruses, the distributions of which match those of seasonal community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
· Several genetic variations in ion channels seem associated with neuronal hyperexcitability in children with febrile seizures.
Update on eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease beyond eosinophilic esophagitis in children
HYE RAN YANG
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) is an emerging condition worldwide in both children and adults, although it is considered rare. EGID has been underestimated owing to its underdiagnosis in the past, and its prevalence has recently increased. The diagnosis of EGID is based on histopathologic findings of endoscopic mucosal biopsy in which the total number of infiltrating eosinophils in each segment...
Allergy
Eosinophils and childhood asthma
Bong Seok Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):60-67.   Published online January 6, 2021
•In allergic eosinophilic asthma, eosinophils act as important effector cells and antigen-presenting cells, while in nonallergic eosinophilic asthma, type 2 innate lymphoid cells play an important role in eosinophil activation.
•Sputum eosinophil counts can be helpful for evaluating allergic airway inflammation in asthma.
• Anti-interleukin-5 has broadened the scope of asthma treatment.
Immunology
Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and early immunomodulators
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):239-250.   Published online June 18, 2020
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Although its etiologic agent is discovered as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are many unsolved issues in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. The causes of different clinical phenotypes and incubation periods among individuals, species specificity, and cytokine storm with lymphopenia as well as the mechanism of damage to organ...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: an immunological concept
Seong Heon Kim, Se Jin Park, Kyoung Hee Han, Andreas Kronbichler, Moin A. Saleem, Jun Oh, Beom Jin Lim, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):205-211.   Published online May 31, 2016

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common form of INS in children. The pathogenesis of MCNS still remains unclear, however, several hypotheses have been recently proposed. For several decades, MCNS has been considered a T-cell disorder, which causes the impairment of the glomerular filtration barrier...

An update on necrotizing enterocolitis: pathogenesis and preventive strategies
Jang Hoon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):368-372.   Published online September 30, 2011

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most critical morbidities in preterm infants. The incidence of NEC is 7% in very-low-birth-weight infants, and its mortality is 15 to 30%. Infants who survive NEC have various complications, such as nosocomial infection, malnutrition, growth failure, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and neurodevelopmental delays. The most important etiology in the pathogenesis of NEC...

Recent progress in the understanding of clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Beyong Il Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(1):6-13.   Published online January 15, 2009
Recent advances in perinatal care have resulted in improved survival of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). However, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains one of the major complications in ELBWI. BPD was originally described over 40 years ago; the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of BPD have changed markedly through this period. In this article, I have reviewed recent progress in...
Case Report
A Case of Acute Fulminant Hepatitis Induced by Herpesvirus Hominus.
Hee Jung Chung, Ki Sup Chung, Duk Jin Yun, Jung Sook Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(6):616-621.   Published online June 30, 1982
We have experienced a case with acute fulminant hepatitis induced by Herpesvirus homin-us. The patient, 11day-old male baby, was admitted with the chief complaints of poor sucking and jaundice for 3 days duration. On adimission, we performed bacterial cultures, liver function tests, blood coagulation test, TORCH study and routine hematologic studies. During these studies, bleeding tendency was n-oticed at the...
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