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Review Article
Endocrinology
Genetic factors in precocious puberty
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):172-181.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Mutations in the kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) genes are associated with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).
· A few genes related to pubertal onset have been implicated in ICPP.
· Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and noncoding ribonucleic acids may be related to ICPP
Original Article
Endocrinology
Effect of agricultural pesticide on precocious puberty in urban children: an exploratory study
Junghwan Suh, Han Saem Choi, Ahreum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):146-150.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: Does agricultural pesticide effect precocious puberty in girls?
Finding: Dinotefuran, an insecticide of neonicotinoid class, was detected in one of 30 patients with precocious puberty, and in 2 girls of the normal control group, which was not statistically significant.
Meaning: There was no close relationship between agricultural pesticides and development of precocious puberty.
The influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on anthropometric change in girls with central precocious puberty
Jong Wan Yoon, Hyun A Park, Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):395-402.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

The potential effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the weight of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) remains a controversy. We investigated anthropometric changes during and after GnRHa treatment among girls with CPP.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated data from 127 girls with CPP who received GnRHa treatment for ≥2 years. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) values were...

Usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty in girls
Jung Yu, Ha Young Shin, Sun Hee Lee, You Sung Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):294-300.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

It is difficult to differentiate between central precocious puberty (CPP) and premature thelarche (PT) in girls. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography to distinguish between CPP and PT in girls with early breast development.

Methods

This study included girls with early breast development who visited the clinic between January 2012 and December 2013. Clinical,...

Review Article
Long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in girls with central precocious puberty
Eun Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):1-7.   Published online January 31, 2015

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are widely used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP). The efficacy and safety of GnRHa treatment are known, but concerns regarding long-term complications are increasing. Follow-up observation results after GnRHa treatment cessation in female CPP patients up to adulthood showed that treatment (especially <6 years) was beneficial for final adult height relative to that of pretreated...

Original Article
Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty
Doosoo Kim, Sung-Yoon Cho, Se-Hyun Maeng, Eun Sang Yi, Yu Jin Jung, Sung Won Park, Young Bae Sohn, Dong-Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(12):481-486.   Published online December 20, 2012
Purpose

Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.

Methods

The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from...

LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls
Sung Won Park, Seung-Tae Lee, Young Bae Sohn, Sung Yoon Cho, Se-Hwa Kim, Su Jin Kim, Chi Hwa Kim, Ah-Ra Ko, Kyung-Hoon Paik, Jong-Won Kim, Dong-Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(10):388-392.   Published online October 29, 2012
Purpose

Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within LIN28B have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP). This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP.

Methods

Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77...

Review Article
The genes associated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent precocious puberty
Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(1):6-10.   Published online January 31, 2012

Human puberty is a complex, coordinated biological process with multiple levels of regulations. The timing of puberty varies greatly in children and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The key genes of pubertal onset, KISS1, GPR54, GNRH1 and GNRHR, may be major causal factors underlying gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent precocious puberty (GDPP). Two gain-of-function mutations in KISS1 and GPR54 have...

Case Report
Testicular adrenal rest tumors in a patient with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Hye Young Jin, Jin Ho Choi, Gu Hwan Kim, Chung Sik Lee, Han Wook Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(3):137-140.   Published online March 31, 2011

Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are considered to be formed from aberrant adrenal tissue that has become hyperplastic because of elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). A 6-year-old boy presented with testicular enlargement and pubic hair. He was diagnosed with CAH complicated by precocious puberty. However, he was not followed-up. At the age of...

Review Article
Clinical application of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents
Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):294-299.   Published online March 15, 2010
Although the increasing incidence of central precocious puberty (CPP) in Korea has recently raised public concerns about health and growth problems, there are many areas of uncertainty regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of CPP. In this paper, we review the definition of precocity, the assessment of CPP, and the hormonal abnormalities that support the diagnosis. In addition, we review...
Original Article
Analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test results in girls with precocious puberty
Jung Yun Choi, Hyun-Ju Kang, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Kim, So Hyun Park, Seung Hoon Hahn, Min Ho Jung, Byung Kyu Suh, Byung Churl Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(12):1377-1382.   Published online December 15, 2009
Purpose : The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test results of girls with precocious puberty were analyzed to determine whether this test can efficiently and clearly differentiate between central precocious puberty (CPP) and other disorders. Methods : Clinical and laboratory data of 54 girls with precocious pubertal signs were reviewed. Intravenous GnRH test was performed with blood samples obtained at 0, 30,...
Effect of GnRH analogue on the bone mineral density of precocious or early pubertal girls
Jeong Sook Lim, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(12):1370-1376.   Published online December 15, 2009
Purpose : Treatment of precocity with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) might theoretically exert a detrimental effect on the bone mass during pubertal development. We investigated the short-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) during GnRHa treatment and the enhancement in the changes with the co-administration of GnRHa and human growth hormone (hGH). Methods : Forty girls with precocious or...
Review Article
Growth and sex differentiation of children born small for gestational age
Se Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):142-151.   Published online February 15, 2009
The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births is frequent, accounting for 2.3% to 8% of all live births. Several childhood and adult diseases are related to early postnatal growth and birth size, and 10% of children born SGA may have a short stature throughout postnatal life. Additionally, they may have abnormal growth hormone (GH)-insulin like growth factor axis,...
Original Article
A comparative study of the puberty suppression effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in precocious or early puberty girls
Kye-Shik Shim, Chong-Woo Bae, You-Jung Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(6):634-639.   Published online June 15, 2008
Purpose : There has been considerable disagreement regarding the most appropriate dosage of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in cases of central precocious puberty. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate dosage for suppression of the puberty in girls with central precocious or early puberty. Methods : Twenty-two girls with early puberty were randomly subjected to 3 types of dosages...
Growth promoting effect of combined gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue and growth hormone therapy in early pubertal girls with predicted low adult heights
Eun-Jeong Hong, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(7):678-685.   Published online July 15, 2007
Purpose : Recent reports pointed out that gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) therapy alone is not so promising for improving adult height in precocious puberty. So, that we studied the growth promoting effect of combined therapy with GnRHa and growth hormone (GH) in early pubertal girls. Methods : Twenty three early pubertal girls (9.73?.59 yr) with predicted adult heights (PAH) below...
Effect of GnRH analogue on predicted adult height in girls with early puberty
Byung-Hoon Ahn, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(5):552-557.   Published online May 15, 2006
Purpose : The recent results observed in precocious puberty and the hope that interrupting puberty might increase adult height have led to an attempt to use GnRH agonist(GnRHa) in children with premature puberty and a poor growth prognosis. We aimed to analyze the growth promoting effect of GnRHa in girls with early puberty and low predicted adult height(PAH). Methods : Thirty...
The comparison of predicted adult height change and height gain after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and combined growth hormone treatment in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty
Ji-Young Seo, In-Suk Yoon, Choong-Ho Shin, Sei-Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(3):305-311.   Published online March 15, 2006
Purpose : GnRH analogues(GnRHa) are used to treat central precocious puberty(CPP). However, in some patients, the GV decrease is so remarkable that it impairs predicted adult height(PAH); and there fore, the addition of growth hormone(GH) is suggested. We analysed the growth changes during two years and final adult height(FAH) in girls with idiopathic CPP treated with combined therapy, compared with...
Case Report
A Case of True Precocious Puberty Complicating Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Su Jin Kim, Ju Suk Lee, Su Yung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(4):400-403.   Published online April 15, 2003
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAH) is a recognized cause of precocious pseudopuberty. Some children with CAH also develop true precocious puberty with early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We review a case of CAH who eventually developed central precocious puberty nine months after initial treatment with corticosteroid. A 3-year-old boy visited complaining of rapid growth, a large penis and frequent penile erections....
A Case of Hepatoblastoma with Precocious Puberty
Chang Won Choi, Hyun Jin Park, Ki Woong Sung, Eun Sun Yoo, Hee Young Shin, Sei Won Yang, Hyo Seop Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(2):288-293.   Published online February 15, 2000
Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor in childhood. Most cases are boys generally below three years of age. Hepatoblastoma are associated with various non-metastatic syndromes. Rarely, human chorionic gonadotropin may be produced by the tumor. Ectopic gonadotropin production from this source is a rare cause of precocious puberty in boys. Since a report by Behrendt in 1931,...
Original Article
A case of idiopathic precocious puberty treated with a luteinizing hormone relaeasing hormone analog.
Keun Hee Chung, Yoo Mi Kim, Mi Won Kim, Soon Ki Kim, Moon Soo Park, Jin Keun Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1991;34(8):1132-1138.   Published online August 31, 1991
We experienced a 4 year girl with idiopathic precocious puberty treated with a long acting LHRH analog (Buserelin). As an indction therapy she received LHRH analog for 6 months in subcutaneous route. After then she was maintained by intranasal therapy for 6 months. One month after the induction therapy began, we observed prepunbertal pattern of LHRH stimulation test and significant suppression of 17B-estradiol level....
Adrenocortical carcinoma in a twelve month old male infant.
Woo Ryoung Lee, Kyoung Whan Oh, Chang Hwi Kim, Sang Jhoo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1991;34(1):137-143.   Published online January 31, 1991
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in childhood. Most of these carcinomas are functional, produc- ing endocrine abnormalities such as Cushing syndrome, virilization, precocious puberty, hyperaldosteronism or feminization. We experienced a case of adrenocortical carcinoma in a 12 month old male infant who exhibited features of Cushing syndrome, Virilization, precocious puberty and hyperaldosteronism, which were due to functional adrenocortical carcinoma. Microscopic examination revealed cellular pleomorphism...
A Case of Estrogen-producing Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor with Precocious puberty.
Myung Sun Oh, Nan Kyoung Kim, Dae Hyun LIm, Jeung Hee Kim, Byong Kwan Son, In Suk Joo, Ku Sang Kim, Young Chai Joo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(9):1301-1305.   Published online September 30, 1990
We have experienced a case of estrogen producing Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with precocious puberty in a 2-year-old girl. Her chief complaints were breast enlargement, which was noticed 20 days prior to admission and vaginal bleeding, which was noticed 10 days prior to admission. The diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical examination, ultra sonography, hormonal study, and histologic study after operation. She was...
A Case of Sexual Precocity with Congenital Hypothyroidism.
Wan Kyu Lee, Eun Jun Hyung, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(2):259-263.   Published online February 28, 1990
Sexual precocity in assocition with congenital hypothyroidism is a rare clinical entity. We experi- enced a case of sexual precocity, such as vaginal bleeding, breast development in a patient with congenital hypothyroidism' We present with the brief review of related literature.
A Case of the Hepatoblastoma with Precocious Puberty.
In Young Park, Byung Jun Lee, Byung Churl Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(5):735-740.   Published online May 31, 1989
Hepatoblastoma is a rare neoplasm in childhood. Hepatoblastoma associated with precocious puberty caused by human chorionic agonadotropin (HCG) secreted by the tumor itself, is very rare. We experiened a case of hepatoblastoma with precocious puberty in a 28-month-old boy, who was admitted because of abdominal pain, enlarged testis & penis, pubic hair and a deep voice. Diagnosis was made by typical Clinical manifestation, elevated...
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