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Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):115-126.   Published online October 12, 2021
There have been global tri-phasic epidemic periods of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In recent years, its incidence has reportedly been 10%–40% depending on country and study population. Current treatment strategies for ROP include laser photocoagulation, surgical treatment, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the role of which has drawn attention in recent years.
Original Article
Postnatal weight gain in the first two weeks as a predicting factor of severe retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment
Jongmoon Kim, Jang Yong Jin, Sung Shin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(2):52-59.   Published online February 28, 2015
Purpose

This study aimed to investigate the relative weight gain at 2-week intervals up to 6 weeks after birth to predict retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment among very low birth weight infants.

Methods

A total of 211 preterm infants with birth weights <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome was the development of ROP requiring treatment....

Case Report
Transient carnitine transport defect with cholestatic jaundice: report of one case in a premature baby
Hyun-Seok Cho, Young Kwang Choo, Hong Jin Lee, Hyeon-Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(2):58-62.   Published online February 14, 2012

Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-trimethylaminobutyric acid) is involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix and the removal of potentially toxic acylcarnitine esters. Transient carnitine transport defect is a rare condition in newborns reported in 1/90,000 live births. In this paper, we describe a case of transient carnitine transport defect found in a premature baby who had prolonged cholestatic...

Idiopathic severe hypermagnesemia in an extremely low birth weight infant on the first day of life
Hye Sun Hyun, Hyun Sin Choi, Jin Kyu Kim, So Yoon Ahn, Hey Soo Yoo, Eun Sun Kim, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(7):310-312.   Published online July 31, 2011

A preterm female infant born at 27 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 990 g developed acute hypotonia, apnea, hypotension and bradycardia mimicking septic shock syndrome at 14h after birth. Laboratory tests indicated a severe hypermagnesemia of 45 mg/dL. The renal function, complete blood count and maternal blood concentrations of magnesium were normal, and the blood cultures were...

Review Article
Ureaplasma infections in pre-term infants: Recent information regarding the role of Ureaplasma species as neonatal pathogens
Tae-Jung Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(12):989-993.   Published online December 31, 2010

Although numerous clinical observational studies have been conducted over a period of over 30 years, the clinical significance of Ureaplasma infection is still under debate. The Ureaplasma speices. is a commensal in the female genital tract and considered to have of low virulence; however, Ureaplasma colonization has been associated with infertility, stillbirth, preterm delivery, histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal morbidities, including...

Original Article
The relationship between the time from arrival at a hospital to delivery and the occurrence of cerebral palsy in premature infants of less than 34 weeks of gestational age
Jae Woong Whang, A Lum Heo, Soo Hyun Koo, Hae Jung Lee, Jun Wha Lee, Joo Seok Lee, Kyung Lae Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(11):1228-1233.   Published online November 15, 2009
Purpose : This study aimed to evaluate whether a shorter time from the arrival at a hospital to delivery is related to the occurrence of cerebral palsy in premature infants of less than 34 weeks of gestational age. Methods : We studied 142 newborns of less than 34 weeks of gestational age. The time from the arrival at the hospital...
The outcomes of retinopathy of prematurity in relation to duration of low dose oxygen therapy
Pil Sang Lee, Jae Won Choi, Sang Geel Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(1):50-55.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : This study aimed to determine the influence of low-dose oxygen (FiO2 <25%) therapy through nasal cannulae on the progress and prognosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) as well as methods of preventing ROP. Methods : Our subjects comprised premature infants (gestation period <37 weeks; birth weight <1,750 g) born in Daegu Fatima Hospital between February 1, 2001 and...
Review Article
Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) revisited
Jeong Hun Kim, Young Suk Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(1):22-27.   Published online January 15, 2009
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of blindness that affects premature infants. With advances in neonatology, ROP is likely to emerge as the most serious problem of vision loss in children even in developed countries; such a situation could be called the third epidemic of ROP. However, controversy and uncertainty still surround favorable outcomes of ROP. For successfully...
Original Article
Delayed closure effect in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus
Hyun Ju Lee, Gyu Hong Sim, Kyung Eun Jung, Jin A Lee, Chang Won Choi, Ee Kyung Kim, Han Suk Kim, Beyong Il Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(10):1065-1070.   Published online October 15, 2008
Purpose : This study aims to determine whether early closure (within 7 d) of significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with indomethacin or ligation reduces neonatal morbidity when compared with delayed closure (after 7 d). Methods : Fifty-eight extremely-low-birth-weight infants admitted to the NICU of Seoul National University Hospital from April 2005 to May 2007 with PDA were studied retrospectively. Results :...
Review Article
Post discharge care of prematurity
Hye Sun Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(1):14-19.   Published online January 15, 2007
Advances in neonatal care have been responsible for the improved survival of prematurity but have not resulted in decreased morbidity. Once the high-risk infants is discharged from the hospital, his or her many special care needs do not cease. A well-coordinated multidisciplinary approach is essential in the follow-up care of these infants. Special attention must be given to their growth...
Original Article
Evaluation of Perinatal and Management Factors Associated with Improved Survival in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants
Sung Eun Park, Ga Won Jeon, Chang Won Choi, Jong Hee Hwang, Soo Hyun Koo, Yu Jin Kim, Chang Hoon Lee, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(12):1324-1329.   Published online December 15, 2005
Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate recent improvements in the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and to identify perinatal and management factors that are associated with improved survival. Methods : Two groups of ELBW infants who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during two distinct eras : November 1994-December...
Clinical Lecture
Twins
Oh Kyung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(7):685-690.   Published online July 15, 2005
Recently, twinning rate increases in Korea since the early 1990s by delayed marriage and prevailing of assisted reproductive technology. But twin and higher-order multiples are at increased risk for perinatal and neonatal mortality over 5 fold despite of dramatic improvement of perinatal and neonatal care. Because twins are born more prematurely and have lower birth weights than singleton. In addition,...
Original Article
Serum Albumin Concentrations and Clinical Disorders by Gestational Ages in Preterm Babies
Mia Lee, Soo Youn, Baek Keun Lim, Jong Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):148-153.   Published online February 15, 2005
Purpose : The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges of serum albumin levels depending on the gestational ages of preterm infants. We also intended to compare the mean serum albumin levels between groups of preterm infants that did not develop clinical disorders later, and groups that did develop clinical disorders such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular...
Intrauterine Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Premature Infants
Hyun-Seung Jin, Kyeng-Ah Park, Hyun-Woo Goo, Jong-Hyun Yoon, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, Ki-Soo Kim, Soo-Young Pi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(1):27-33.   Published online January 15, 2005
Purpose : To determine incidence, characteristics and risk factors associated with intrauterine intraventricular hemorrhage(IU-IVH) among premature infants. Methods : The medical records of infants with intraventricular hemorrhage(IVH) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Asan Medical Center from January 1999 to June 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Infants whose IVH with cystic change were detected within five days of life were...
Surfactant Therapy for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome : Experience in Korea Over 15 Years
Chong-Woo Bae, Young-Min Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(9):940-948.   Published online September 15, 2004
Purpose : Surfactant replacement therapy in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) has been used in Korea since 1990. We undertook a collective study of trials from multi-hospitals to evaluate results of neonates with RDS who were treated with surfactant during the past 15 years in Korea(Period I, P-I, 1990-91; Period II, P-II, 1996; Period-III, P-III; 2002). Methods : There were 60...
Survival Rate in Very Low Birth Weight Infants
Jae Ju Cho, Soon Bum Lee, Woo Sung Park, Young Pyo Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(5):505-509.   Published online May 15, 2004
Purpose : We observed changes in the outcome of very low birth weight infants(VLBWI) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) of Dankook University Hospital(DKUH) in the last six years. Methods : The distribution of birth weight and gestational age, survival rate, neonatal complications, and causes of death for 228 VLBWI who had been admitted to DKUH from 1st January...
A Clinical Characteristics of Systemic Candidiasis in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit : Comparison with Systemic Bacterial Infection
Jung Hwa Lim, Kyung Pil Park, Jin Kyung Kim, Heng Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(7):847-854.   Published online July 15, 2002
Purpose : Long term hospitalized infants in neonatal intensive care units(NICUs) are prone to systemic infection. It is important to differentiate systemic candidiasis from systemic bacterial infection early in the course. Thus, in this study, we have compared clinical characteristics of systemic candidiasis and systemic bacterial infection, in premature low birth weight infants. Methods : Retrospective chart review of the medical...
Case Report
A Case of Partial DiGeorge Syndrome in Prematurity
Tae Jung Sung, Eun Young Ko, Dal Hyon Kim, Ji Eun Oh, Young Se Kwon, Dae Hyun Lim, Byong Kwan Son
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(3):383-389.   Published online March 15, 2002
We experienced a case of partial DiGeorge syndrome in a 35+5 week premature female infant presented with micrognathia, fish-shaped mouth, beaked nose, nasal regurgitation, obstructive sleep apnea, velopharyngeal insufficiency and late onset hypocalcemic seizures. The chromosome 22q11 microdeletion was found by the FISH method. The lab findings showed serum calcium level of 4.4 mg/dL, ionized calcium level of 0.49 mg/dL,...
Original Article
The Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Nested PCR in Prematurity and Delivery of Low Birth Weight Infant
Jae Ho Noh, Hye Kyung Lee, Han Jin Kim, Yong Sik Min, Kyeong Bae Park, Joon Soo Park, Young Chang Kim, Sung Ran Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(8):875-880.   Published online August 15, 2001
Purpose : Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) has generally been more sensitive than traditional tests for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis which has been a leading cause of sexually transmitted disease. We performed this study to find out if there is an association between C. trachomatis infection and low birth weight(LBW) or prematurity. Methods : The study included 98 premature or LBW infants...
Effect of Parenteral Nutrition Guideline Changes on Neonatal Sepsis in Premature Infants
Chang-Ryul Kim, Jae-Won Oh, Myung-Kul Yum, Soo-Jee Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(6):620-626.   Published online June 15, 2001
Purpose : We hypothesized that decreased parenteral nutrition would lower the incidence of neonatal sepsis in premature infants. Methods : The study involves 223 premature infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Hanyang University Kuri Hospital from July 1995 to January 1999. Infants were divided into two groups based on different parenteral nutrition guidelines : Old...
Comparison of Intraventricular Hemorrhagic Findings in Preterm Infants Between Brain Ultrasonogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Discharge
Yong Kuk Kim, Sung Suk Do, Mi Hyun Cho, Sang Geel Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(4):470-476.   Published online April 15, 2000
Purpose : It has been customary to perform brain ultrasonogram(brain US) for the early detection of intraventricular hemorrhage(IVH) during intensive care of neonates. On the other hand magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) has been greatly restrictioned due to its complicated procedures. This study was conducted to identify changes in neonates' brain structure and to gain basic data for the long-term follow-up of...
Study on Closing Time after Indomethacin Administration in Prematurity with Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Wan Cho, Suk Min Choi, Kyu Hyung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(11):1508-1515.   Published online November 15, 1999
Purpose : In the clinical field, the closing time of patent ductus arteriosus(PDA) varies among patients after indomethacin administration. We tried to predict it by analyzing related factors, and also by understanding what affects it. Methods : Among 30 cases of PDA at the NICU, 24 cases(male 14 cases, female 10 cases) were selected. Fifteen cases closed early(within 36 hours) and...
Early Onset Hyperkalemia within 72 Hours after Birth in Extremely Preterm Infants
Young Pyo Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(10):1366-1372.   Published online October 15, 1999
Purpose : The incidence of hyperkalemia and the factors contributing the serum potassium level within 72 hours after birth in extremely preterm infants were determined. Methods : The incidence of hyperkalemia and differences of clinical features between hyperkalemic(≥6.5mEq/L) and normokalemic(<6.5mEq/L) groups were determined by reviewing medical records of 53 extremely preterm infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation. Results :...
Gastric Emptying Time in Preterm Infents : Comparison between Breast Milk and Formula Milk
Seong Woo Roh, Seong Sook Jeon, Son Sang Seo, Jeong Mi Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(3):324-331.   Published online March 15, 1999
Purpose : Failure of adequate gastric emptying frequently interferes with successful enteral nutrition in infants. Study of gastric emptying in preterm infants has been hampered by the absence of a suitable and, valid technique, but ultrasonic assessment is well tolerated by infants. The aim of this study is to compare gastric emptying rates of breast milk and formula within preterm...
Erythropoietin Levels in Premature Infants Following Prolonged Treatment with Theophylline
Kug Hwan Kim, Eun Seok Yang, Sang Kee Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(9):1227-1231.   Published online September 15, 1997
Purpose : Theophylline, an adenosine antagonist commonly used in premature infants to treat apnea, has been shown to decrease erythropoietin levels in adults. We studied the effect of theophylline on serum erythropoietin levels in premature infants with apnea. Methods : Subject were 12 premature infants with apnea who were admitted to the NICU, Chosun University Hospital. The first dose of theophylline was 5mg/kg, given...
A Clinical Study for the Time of Development and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity
Eun Ae Park, Gyoung Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(7):945-954.   Published online July 15, 1997
Prophylactic Treatment of Anemia of Prematurity with Recombinant Human Erythropoietin and High Doses of Iron
Young Ho Lee, Ahn Hong Choi, Soon Yong Lee, Jeong Sook Park, Bong Keun Choi, Hyoung Shim Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(3):361-367.   Published online March 15, 1997
Purpose : We conducted randomized study to determine whether high doses(6mg/kg/ day) of iron would exert a more supplemental effect than low doses(3mg/kg/day), and which regimen of recombinant human erythropoietin(rHuEPO) and iron would be more beneficial in the prophylactic treatment of anemia of prematurity. Methods : We randomly assigned 38 sick premature infants who were more likely than symptom-free premature infants requiring erythrocyte transfusions for...
Effect of Indomethacin Therapy in Prematurity with Patent Ductus Arteriosus:study of Its Effectiveness in Treatment Modality
Yun Kyeong Bae, Seong Woo Roh, Min Jeong Kim, Son Sang Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(9):1239-1246.   Published online September 15, 1996
Purpose : Conventional indomethacin therapy(0.2mg/kg every 12 hours for three doses) has been used for closure of PDA. The effect of prolonged low dose of indomethacin therapy(0.1mg/kg daily for six days)had been reported in foreign country but, nothing had been reported in our country. So we attempted this study to examine effects of these two methods. Methods : Forty one infants with PDA of...
Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin on the Anemia of Premature Infants
Young Ah Lee, Ki Soo Kim, Young Seo Park, Hyung Nam Moon, Chang Yee Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(5):631-640.   Published online May 15, 1996
Purpose : To determine whether the prophylactic treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin(rHuEPO) for the anemia of prematurity would reduce the need for blood transfusions. Methods : We randomly assigned 17 premature infants to therHuEPO group and the control group. For the rHuEPO group (n=9, birth weight=1210¡¾156 g, gestational age=31.7¡¾1.9wk), rHuEPO (400U/kg) was given three times a week for 4 weeks, plus iron (8 mg/kg/day) and vitamin...
Incidenceand Risk Factorsof the Retinopathy of Prematurity
June Dong Park, Jung Hae Kweon, Woong Heum Kim, Beyong Il Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi, Chong Ku Yun, Sang In Khwarg, Young Suk Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(3):326-337.   Published online March 15, 1996
Purpose : Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) continues to be a serious problem in infants who survived with neonatal intensive care. Nevertheless, there is neither available data about the incidence of ROP which may be the basis of the epidemiology, nor analysis of the risk factors of ROP in Korea. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of...
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