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Original Article
Infection
Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iranian children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Farhad Sarrafzadeh, Seyed Mojtaba Sohrevardi, Hamid Abousaidi, Hossein Mirzaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):415-421.   Published online November 20, 2020
The pooled prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 42% among culture-positive cases of S. aureus, 51% in hospitalized children, and 14% in healthy children. The high prevalence of MRSA in Iranian children may be due to insufficient infection control measures in hospitals, inappropriate use of methicillin, inadequate staff training, and over-prescription of antibiotics in Iran.
Febrile urinary tract infection in children: changes in epidemiology, etiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns over a decade
Woosuck Suh, Bi Na Kim, Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Ae Yang, Jung-Woo Rhim, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):293-300.   Published online October 14, 2020
Question: How has the antibiotic susceptibility of urinary pathogens changed and what does it imply?
Finding: A yearly increase in multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing pathogens was observed. A higher recurrence rate was observed in cases of febrile urinary tract infection caused by ESBL producers in patients with underlying vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Meaning: The initial empirical antibiotic should reflect the changing susceptibility patterns and underlying VUR status.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Early menarche and its consequence in Korean female: reducing fructose intake could be one solution
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):12-20.   Published online May 14, 2020
In Korea, the average age of menarche has declined sharply. Early menarche is associated with psychosocial and behavioral problems and cardiometabolic disease. Excess fructose intake has been suggested as one cause of early menarche in recent studies, so reducing fructose intake may be one solution.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents
Ozlem Kara
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):110-114.   Published online March 6, 2020
Question: Does subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children and adolescents affect metabolic parameters?
Finding: Insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG levels were higher and the HDL-C level was lower in patients with SH.
Meaning: A clear association is observed between SH, and insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in obese children. It can be said that the TSH may be evaluated as a metabolic risk factor in obese patients.
Review Article
Pulmonology
Benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children
Hyeon-Jong Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(6):199-205.   Published online March 15, 2019
Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, the emergence of macrolide-resistant MPP (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after the 2000s, especially in East Asia. MRMP is more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treating M. pneumoniae infections in children....
Predictors and management of intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease
Min Seob Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(4):119-123.   Published online March 15, 2019
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mainly affects younger children. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistant cases are at increasing risk for coronary artery complications. The strategy on prediction of potential nonresponders and treatment of IVIG-resistant patients is now controversial. In this review the definition and predictors of IVIG-resistant KD and current evidence to guide management are discussed.
Trends in the use of antibiotics among Korean children
Young June Choe, Ju-Young Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(4):113-118.   Published online March 4, 2019
Inappropriate antibiotic use is the most important factor causing increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, thus affecting patient outcomes. Multidrug-resistant bacteria have become a serious public health threat, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Korea, the burden of antibioticresistant bacteria has become an important public health issue. There is increasing evidence of overuse and misuse of antibiotics in Korea, as...
Original Article
Adolescence Medicine
Serum alanine aminotransferase levels are closely associated with metabolic disturbances in apparently healthy young adolescents independent of obesity
Ki Eun Kim, Kyung Suk Baek, Sol Han, Jung Hyun Kim, Youn Ho Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(2):48-54.   Published online November 23, 2018

Purpose: Liver metabolism plays a pivotal role in the development of metabolic disorders. We aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory risk factors associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in young adolescents from an urban population in Korea. Methods: A population of 120 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12–13 years was included in the cross-sectional design study; 58 were overweight or obese...
Pulmonology
Increased procalcitonin level is a risk factor for prolonged fever in children with Mycoplasma pneumonia
Ji Eun Jeong, Ji Eun Soh, Ji Hee Kwak, Hye Lim Jung, Jae Won Shim, Deok Soo Kim, Moon Soo Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(8):258-263.   Published online August 15, 2018

Purpose: Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is characterized by prolonged fever and radiological progression despite macrolide treatment. Few studies have examined serum procalcitonin (PCT) level in children with MPP. We aimed to investigate the association of acute inflammation markers including PCT with clinical parameters in children with MPP. Methods: A total of 147 children were recruited. The diagnosis of MPP...
Review Article
Pulmonology
Mechanism of resistance acquisition and treatment of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children
Hyeon-Jong Yang, Dae Jin Song, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(6):167-174.   Published online June 22, 2017

Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is one of the most common forms of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents. Outbreaks of MPP occur in 3- to 7-year cycles worldwide; recent epidemics in Korea occurred in 2006–2007, 2011, and 2015–2016. Although MPP is known to be a mild, self-limiting disease with a good response to macrolides, it can also progress into a...

Original Article
Pulmonology
Prevalence and clinical manifestations of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Korean children
Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Soo-Jong Hong, Jina Lee, Heungsup Sung, Jinho Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):151-157.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

Macrolide resistance rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae has rapidly increased in children. Studies on the clinical features between macrolide susceptible-M. pneumoniae (MSMP) and macrolide resistant-M. pneumoniae (MRMP) are lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the macrolide resistance rate of M. pneumoniae in Korean children with M. pneumoniae penupmonia in 2015 and compare manifestations between MSMP and MRMP.

Methods

Among 122...

Endocrinology
Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein plasma levels as a biomarker of obesity-related insulin resistance in adolescents
Ki Eun Kim, Young Sun Cho, Kyung Suk Baek, Lan Li, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Jung Hyun Kim, Ho-Seong Kim, Youn Ho Sheen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):231-238.   Published online May 31, 2016
Purpose

Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is a 65-kDa acute phase protein, derived from the liver, which is present in high concentrations in plasma. Data regarding the association between circulating plasma LBP levels and obesity-related biomarkers in the pediatric population are scarce. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in plasma LBP levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess...

Review Article
Endocrinology
Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age
Won Kyoung Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):1-7.   Published online January 22, 2016

Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life....

Case Report
Inhaled iloprost for the treatment of patient with Fontan circulation
Yong Hyun Kim, Moon Hee Chae, Deok Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(10):461-463.   Published online October 31, 2014

Decreased exercise capacity after Fontan surgery is relatively common and the failure of the Fontan state gradually increases with age. However, there is no further treatment for patients with Fontan circulation. Pulmonary vasodilation therapy is an effective method to solve this problem because pulmonary vascular resistance is a major factor of the Fontan problem. Inhaled iloprost is a chemically stable...

Original Article
Predictive value of C-reactive protein in response to macrolides in children with macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia
Young Ho Seo, Jang Su Kim, Sung Chul Seo, Won Hee Seo, Young Yoo, Dae Jin Song, Ji Tae Choung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(4):186-192.   Published online April 30, 2014
Purpose

The prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of MRMP in a tertiary hospital in Korea, and to find potential laboratory markers that could be used to predict the efficacy of macrolides in children with MRMP pneumonia.

Methods

A total of 95 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were enrolled in...

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