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Review Article
Oncology
Application of 3-dimensional printing implants for bone tumors
Jong Woong Park, Hyun Guy Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):476-482.   Published online December 23, 2021
∙ The application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in orthopedic oncology is summarized into bone and tumor modeling, patient-specific instruments (PSIs), custom-made implants, and tissue engineering.
∙ The 3D-printed customized implant is the most central application, while modeling and PSI often play adjunct roles.
∙ Short-term surgical outcomes of custom-made 3D-printed implants are promising.
Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Variation in clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury in young children undergoing cardiac surgery
Hee Sun Baek, Youngok Lee, Hea Min Jang, Joonyong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Yeo Hyang Kim, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):151-156.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: Can clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury vary on the clinical circumstances?
Finding: In young children undergoing cardiac surgery, urine KIM-1/Cr level peaked at 24 hours with significant difference from baseline level and was significantly higher at 6 hours in the AKI group. However, urine NGAL/Cr and IL-18/Cr levels showed no specific trend with time for 48 hours after cardiac surgery.
Meaning: Urine KIM-1/Cr concentration could be considered a good biomarker for early AKI prediction after open cardiac surgery in young children.
Review Article
Neurology
Factors associated with seizure and cognitive outcomes after epilepsy surgery for low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors in children
Ara Ko, Joon Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):171-177.   Published online November 13, 2019
Low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (LEATs) are responsible for drug-resistant chronic focal epilepsy, and are the second-most common reason for epilepsy surgery in children. LEATs are extremely responsive to surgical treatment, and therefore epilepsy surgery should be considered as a treatment option for LEATs. However, the optimal time for surgery remains controversial, and surgeries are often delayed. In this review, we...
Original Article
Cardiology
Importance of pulmonary valve morphology for pulmonary valve preservation in tetralogy of Fallot surgery: comparison of the echocardiographic parameters
Su Jin Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Da Eun Roh, Myung Chul Hyun, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):189-194.   Published online November 8, 2019
Question: Is echocardiographic examination is useful for surgical method decision in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?
Finding: Various echocardiographic parameters serve as predictors for determining surgical methods for TOF patients. However, the PV morphology and tissue characteristics should also be considered.
Meaning: A full dependence on the size of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), the z score, and the ratio of the size of PVA to aortic valve annulus or descending aorta surgery may result in inadequate surgical results during TOF total correction.
Outcome of neonatal palliative procedure for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect or tetralogy of Fallot with severe pulmonary stenosis: experience in a single tertiary center
Tae Kyoung Jo, Hyo Rim Suh, Bo Geum Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):210-216.   Published online July 15, 2018

Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate progression and prognosis according to the palliation method used in neonates and early infants aged 3 months or younger who were diagnosed with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA VSD) or tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) in a single tertiary hospital over a period of 12 years. Methods: Twenty...
Case Report
Pulmonology
A pediatric case of relapsed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis despite successful whole lung lavage
Seung Young Jin, Hye Ri Yun, Yun Jung Choi, Jun Dong Park, Jin Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Young Sik Park, Young Hun Choi, Woo Sun Kim, Dong In Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):232-236.   Published online July 31, 2017

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease in children characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant proteins, which severely reduces gaseous exchange. Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the preferred technique for the treatment of severe PAP. Herein, we present a pediatric case of PAP treated with WLL. An 11-year-old boy was admitted with the chief complaint of a dry cough...

Oncology
Relapsed Wilms' tumor with multiple brain metastasis
Akın Akakın, Baran Yılmaz, Murat Şakir Ekşi, Özlem Yapıcıer, Türker Kılıç
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S96-S98.   Published online November 30, 2016

Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in childhood. The brain metastasis of a Wilms' tumor with anaplastic histopathology is rare. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl with Wilms' tumor, who presented with multiple brain metastases 5 years after her primary diagnosis. The brain masses were diagnosed after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure attack. The big solid...

Gastrointestinal hemangioma in childhood: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding
Eon Chul Han, Soo-Hong Kim, Hyun-Young Kim, Sung-Eun Jung, Kwi-Won Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(5):245-249.   Published online May 31, 2014

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemangiomas are relatively rare benign vascular tumors. The choice of an appropriate diagnostic method depends on patient age, anatomic location, and presenting symptoms. However, GI hemangiomas are not a common suspected cause of GI bleeding in children because of their rarity. Based on medical history, laboratory results, and imaging study findings, the patient could be treated with either...

Review Article
Indirect revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease in children and its special considerations
Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Seung-Ki Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(11):408-413.   Published online November 23, 2012

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is the most common pediatric cerebrovascular disease in Far Eastern countries. In children, MMD frequently manifests as ischemic symptomatology. Cerebral perfusion gradually decreases as the disease progresses, which often leads to cerebral infarction. The benefits of revascularization surgery, whether direct or indirect, have been well established in MMD patients with ischemic symptoms. In adults, the increase in...

Multimodal neuroimaging in presurgical evaluation of childhood epilepsy
Da Eun Jung, Joon-Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(8):779-785.   Published online August 31, 2010

In pre-surgical evaluation of pediatric epilepsy, the combined use of multiple imaging modalities for precise localization of the epileptogenic focus is a worthwhile endeavor. Advanced neuroimaging by high field Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor images, and MR spectroscopy have the potential to identify subtle lesions. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography provide visualization of metabolic alterations...

Original Article
Early postoperative arrhythmias after open heart surgery of pediatric congenital heart diseas
Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim, Joon Yong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee, Kyu Tae Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(4):532-537.   Published online April 15, 2010
Purpose : Early postoperative arrhythmias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity after open heart surgery in the pediatric population. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of early postoperative arrhythmias after surgery of congenital heart disease. Methods : From January 2002 to December 2008, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the 561 patients who underwent cardiac surgery in Kyungpook National University...
Surgical outcome of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions
Cha Gon Lee, Su In Jeong, June Huh, I-Seok Kang, Heung Jae Lee, Ji-Hyuk Yang, Tae Gook Jun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(2):195-202.   Published online February 15, 2010
Purpose : Despite recent advances in pulmonary hypertension management and surgery, appropriate guidelines remain to be developed for operability in congenital heart disease with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Our aim was to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with severe PAH who underwent surgical closure of left-to-right shunt lesions (LRSL) on the basis of pulmonary reactivity. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 21...
Case Report
A case of hippocampal sclerosis diagnosed as cortical dysplasia due to preoperative brain MRI finding
Jun Seok Lee, Kyo Ryung Kim, Jeong Tae Kim, Min Jung Choi, Young Mock Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Joon Soo Lee, Dong Seok Kim, Tae Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(1):106-110.   Published online January 15, 2010
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is one of the most common features of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Generally it can be identified through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Typical brain MRI findings of HS are hippocampal atrophy with hyperintense signal confined to the lesion. On the other hand cortical dysplasia exhibits blurring of the gray-white...
Original Article
The changes in signal-averaged electrocardiogram after surgical correction of congenital heart disease
Yeo Hyang Kim, Hee Jung Choi, Gun Jik Kim, Joon Yong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(12):1364-1369.   Published online December 15, 2009
Purpose : To analyze abnormal ventricular activation in childhood congenital heart disease induced by postoperative changes in ventricular volume and pressure and ventricular scar formation using signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG). Methods : Fifty-two patients who had undergone open heart surgery (OHS) were enrolled. Patients were divided into the following 3 groups: right ventricular volume overload (atrial septal defect, group1), left ventricular...
Case Report
Coronary artery fistula associated with single coronary artery
Seong Man Kim, Min Seob Song, Kwang Hyun Cho, Chul Ho Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(10):1118-1122.   Published online October 15, 2008
A case of a single coronary artery complicated with a coronary artery fistula (CAF) to the right ventricle is extremely rare, and its management strategy and prognosis are not clear. A 5-year-old boy was hospitalized for evaluation of a continuous heart murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography suggested a CAF to the right ventricle, with an enlarged left coronary artery. Cardiac catheterization...
Surgical removal of a left ventricular thrombus caused by acute myocarditis
Kyu Ha Lee, Min Jung Yoon, Mi Young Han, Sa Jun Chung, Soo Cheol Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(6):588-591.   Published online June 15, 2007
Left ventricular thrombus is mainly caused by anterior myocardial infarction or severe cardiac wall dysfunction of the apex, and is rarely caused by a complication of acute myocarditis. A 12-year-old female who developed symptoms of motor dysphasia and incomplete hemiparesis of the right side was admitted to the hospital. The brain MRI taken on the day of her admission showed...
Original Article
Evaluation of short-term cardiac function by tissue Doppler imaging in pre and postoperative period of congenital heart disease
Jun-Hwa Lee, Yeo-Hyang Kim, Myung-Chul Hyun, Sang-Bum Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(5):476-483.   Published online May 15, 2007
Purpose : The objective of this study was to assess ventricular function by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have been undergoing open heart surgery (OHS) using cardiopulmonary bypass. We tried to compare the parameters of tissue Doppler imaging before and after OHS in patients with congenital heart disease. Methods : This study was conducted...
Closure of secundum atrial septal defect: comparison between percutaneous and surgical occlusion
Na Yeon Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Deok Young Choi, Mi Jin Jung, Chang Hyu Choi, Seong Ho Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(5):469-475.   Published online May 15, 2007
Purpose : This study was performed to compare the safety, efficacy and clinical results of the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) for closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) with surgery. Methods : One hundred fifteen patients diagnosed as isolated secundum ASD in Gil Medical Center, Gachon University of Medicine from January 2000 to July 2006 were included. Seventy patients underwent surgical...
Serial Changes of Cardiac Troponin I After Pediatric Open Heart Surgery
Yeo Hyang Kim, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(2):208-213.   Published online February 15, 2002
Purpose : The major cause of cardiac dysfunction, after open heart surgery for congenital heart disease, is perioperative myocardial injury. Cardiac troponin I is found only within the myocardial cell, so it can be used as a biochemical marker of the myocardial injury. We performed this study to evaluate the worth of cardiac troponin I as a biochemical marker reflecting...
Significance of Postoperative Peritoneal Drainage and Peritoneal Dialys is in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery
Ji-Hwan Choi, Jae-Hwa Oh, Hyang-Suk Yoon, Jong-Bum Choi, Soon-Ho Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(9):1207-1212.   Published online September 15, 2000
Purpose : We reviewed 5 years worth of experience with peritoneal drainage and dialiysis in infants who underwent open heart surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of peritoneal drainage and peritoneal dialysis on fluid on balance and several paramenters od intensive care. Methods : Six(10%) of 60 consecutive infants who underwent open heart surgery required peritoneal...
Effect of Fetal Cardiac Bypass on Fetal Cardiovascular System - Fetal Lamb Study -
Jung Yun Choi, June Huh, Yong Jin Kim, Won Gon Kim, Jeong Ryul Lee, Chong Sung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(7):943-952.   Published online July 15, 1999
Purpose : This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of echo-Doppler study on fetal lamb, analyse the distribution of blood flow before and after fetal cardiac bypass, and consequently assess the effect of fetal cardiac bypass on the fetal cardiovascular system. Methods : Ten fetal lambs at 120 to 150 days of gestation which underwent cardiac bypass for 30 minutes...
Pain Reduction Effects of Continuous Fentanyl Infusion to Intensive Care Neonates
Wi Kyung Hwang, Heng Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(5):657-665.   Published online May 15, 1999
Purpose : To determine whether pain control using fentanyl would effectively reduce behavioral distress, physiologic and hormonal responses to postoperative pain and mechanical ventilation in neonates. Methods : Neonates who were admitted to the NICU(neonate intensive care unit) of Kyungpook University Hospital, requiring surgery or mechanical ventilation were evaluated. Twelve neonates undergoing operation were randomised into two groups. After operation, one...
Thyroid Function Studies in Patients Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery
Hyung Joo Sohn, Yu In Park, Chang Sung Son, Joo Won Lee, Young Chang Tockg
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(9):1250-1255.   Published online September 15, 1998
Purpose : Alteration in the serum level of thyroid hormone can occur following open heart surgery due to major stress and hemodilution after extracorporeal circulation but these changes have been ignored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes of thyroid hormone level after open heart surgery and if these changes influence the prognosis. Methods : We evaluated 26...
Case Report
Treatment of Vaginal Endodermal Sinus Tumor
Seok Joo Han, Myo Kyung Lee, Chuhl-Joo Lyu, Byung Soo Kim, Eui Ho Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(5):707-712.   Published online May 15, 1995
An endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina, a rare pediatric malignancy, was managed with c onservative surgey followed by adjuvant chemotherapy(vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide : VAC). Treatment related complications were acceptible, and there is no evidence of d isease twenty months after diagnosis. As a treatment option, primary conservative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy is viewed as a highly attractive alternative...
Original Article
Clinical Studies on Congenital Heart Diseases
Kyeong-Ah Lee, Tae-Guen Song, Hyun-Kee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(4):472-480.   Published online April 15, 1994
The clinical studies were performed on 304 patients with heart disease who had been received corrective heart surgery at Kosin Medical Center from July, 1984 to December, 1991. The results were follows : 1) Out of 304 patients, 162 cases (53.3%) were male and 142 cases (46.7%) were female and sex ratio was 1.15 : 1.35 cases (11.5%) had clinical cyanosis and...
Neurologic Complications after Open-Heart Surgery in Children
Tae Sung Ko, Ki Joong Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Yong Seung Hwang, Yong Jin Kim, Joon Ryang Rho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(9):1245-1257.   Published online September 15, 1993
Neurologic complications after open-heart surgery are not only relatively common but also often fatal. In order to know the clinical characteristics and carsative risk factors, we carried out the retrospective study on 655 patients who had been admitted and undergone OHS at Seoul National University Children's Hospital during 2-year period from July 1990 to June 1992. The results...
Assessment by Question-Naire of Disease Status of the Pupils in Two Primary Schools in Seoul
Jae Kyung Choi, Nam Soo Kim, Soo Jee Moon, Hahng Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(7):994-1001.   Published online July 15, 1993
We studied the disease status by question-naire in Seoul of the pupils in two primary schools on May, 1991 and carried out statistical analysis of their results. The following results were observed: 1) Total number of answered pupil was 2330;1103 were male and 1227 were female and the ratio of male to female was 1:1.1. Average age was 9.27 years. 2) Number of...
Acute Renal Failure Following Cardiac Surgery
Kang Yong Park, Yeon Ho Choi, Tae Sun Ha, Il Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong, Yong Choi, Kwang Wook Ko, Joon Ryang Rho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1992;35(9):1198-1209.   Published online September 15, 1992
A retrospective study of 452 patients who undertook cardiac surgery was performed to determine the pevalence, etiology, and clinical features of postoperative acute renal failure(ARF). The overall incidence of ARF following cardiac surgery was 4.65%(21/452). The incidence of ARF following open heart surgery(OHS) was 5.11%, and that following closed heart surgery was 2.50%. Preoperactive risk factors noted in the development...
Clinical Studies on Congenital Heart Diseases.
Hee Young Chun, Dae Churl Chung, In Kyung Sung, Kyong Su Lee, Du Bong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(1):66-74.   Published online January 31, 1990
A retrospective study of 10 years* experience with surgical treatment of congenital heart disease in the St. Mary’s Hospital from 1978 to 1987 was made. Data were analyzed on 188 children with congenital heart disease who had received corrective heart surgery under the age of 18 years. The results were as follows: 1) Out of 188 patients, ventricular septal defect(54.2% of all) was the most...
Clinical Studies on Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection.
Young Jin Hong, Kee Hong Kwon, Hae Il Cheong, Jung Yeun Choi, Yong Soo Yoon, Chang Yee Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(11):1120-1130.   Published online November 30, 1982
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a rare congenital defect in which all the pulmonary veins are connected to the right atrium or its tributary veins. Without surgical intervention, most patients with TAP VC have grave prognosis, with cardiac failure and death in infancy. But owing to the advances of surgical technique and postoperative care, complete correction has been accomplished with good results. Sixteen...
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