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Original Article
Clinical characteristics of pediatric patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 versus common human coronaviruses: a national multicenter study
In Suk Sol, Eun Lee, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Yong Ju Lee, Hye Yung Yum, Mi-Hee Lee, Mi Ae Chu, Hui Jeong Moon, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ju Hee Seo, Jung Yeon Shim, Ji Young Ahn, Yoon Young Jang, Hai Lee Chung, Eun Hee Chung, Kyunghoon Kim, Bong-Seong Kim, Cheol Hong Kim, Yang Park, Meeyong Shin, Kyung Suk Lee, Man Yong Han, Soo-Jong Hong, Eun Kyeong Kang, Chang Keun Kim
Background: Human coronaviruses (HCoV) cause mild upper respiratory infections; however, in 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged, causing an acute respiratory disease pandemic. Coronaviruses exhibit marked epidemiological and clinical differences.
Purpose: This study compared the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 versus HCoV. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 data were obtained from the Korea...
Review Article
Pulmonology
The past, present, and future of humidifier disinfectant-associated interstitial lung diseases in children
Eun Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):251-258.   Published online December 9, 2019
Exposure to environmental factors can cause interstitial lung diseases (ILDs); however, such types of ILDs are rare. From 2007 to 2011, an ILD epidemic occurred in South Korea owing to inhalational exposure to toxic chemicals in humidifier disinfectants (HDs). HD-associated ILDs (HD-ILDs) are characterized by rapidly progressing respiratory failure with pulmonary fibrosis and a high mortality rate of 43.8%−58.0%. Although...
Original Article
Allergy
Asthma predictive index as a useful diagnostic tool in preschool children: a cross-sectional study in Korea
Dong Hyeon Lee, Ji-Won Kwon, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Dae-Jin Song, Woo Kyung Kim, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):104-109.   Published online November 8, 2019
Question: Is physician-diagnosed current asthma in preschool children associated with the asthma predictive index, atopic sensitization, or pulmonary function test?
Finding: Physician-diagnosed current asthma in preschool children was associated with the asthma predictive index, but not with spirometry, methacholine provocation test, fractional expiratory nitric oxide level, and atopic sensitization.
Meaning: Physician-diagnosed asthma in preschool children may be different from classic atopic asthma in school children or adolescents.
Review Article
Allergy
Phenotypes of allergic diseases in children and their application in clinical situations
Eun Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(9):325-333.   Published online April 23, 2019
Allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, are common heterogeneous diseases that encompass diverse phenotypes and different pathogeneses. Phenotype studies of allergic diseases can facilitate the identification of risk factors and their underlying pathophysiology, resulting in the application of more effective treatment, selection of better treatment responses, and prediction of prognosis for each phenotype. In the early phase...
Original Article
Pulmonology
Prevalence and clinical manifestations of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Korean children
Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Soo-Jong Hong, Jina Lee, Heungsup Sung, Jinho Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):151-157.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

Macrolide resistance rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae has rapidly increased in children. Studies on the clinical features between macrolide susceptible-M. pneumoniae (MSMP) and macrolide resistant-M. pneumoniae (MRMP) are lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the macrolide resistance rate of M. pneumoniae in Korean children with M. pneumoniae penupmonia in 2015 and compare manifestations between MSMP and MRMP.

Methods

Among 122...

High degree of supervision improves adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma
Geun Mi Park, Hye Won Han, Hee Se Kim, Jae Youn Kim, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Jinho Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(12):472-477.   Published online December 22, 2015
Purpose

Adherence to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a critical determinant of asthma control. The objective of this study was to assess factors that determine adherence to ICS therapy in children with asthma.

Methods

Fifty-eight children with asthma, aged 5 to 16 years, used ICS with or without a spacer for 3 months. Adherence rates as measured from questionnaires and canisters, asthma...

Case Report
Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection causing both benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders
Yoojin Kwun, Soo-Jong Hong, Jin Seong Lee, Da Hye Son, Jong Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(9):420-424.   Published online September 30, 2014

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is oncogenic and can transform B cells from a benign to a malignant phenotype. EBV infection is also associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with a latent EBV infection and underlying LIP, without any associated immunodeficiency. He had been EBV-seropositive for 8 years. The...

Original Article
Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)
Youn Ho Shin, Jinho Yu, Kyung Won Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Seo-Ah Hong, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Ji-Won Kwon, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Jung Yeon Shim, Woo Kyung Kim, Dae Jin Song, So-Yeon Lee, Soo Young Lee, Gwang Cheon Jang, Dong In Suh, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bong Sung Kim, Suk-Joo Choi, Soo-Young Oh, Ja-Young Kwon, Kyung-Ju Lee, Hee Jin Park, Pil Ryang Lee, Hye-Sung Won, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(10):439-445.   Published online October 31, 2013
Purpose

Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort.

Methods

The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean...

Review Article
Clinical efficacy and mechanism of probiotics in allergic diseases
Ha-Jung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Ju-Hee Seo, Eun Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(9):369-376.   Published online September 30, 2013

A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors partially contributes to the development of allergic diseases by affecting development during prenatal and early life. To explain the dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases, the hygiene hypothesis proposed that early exposure to infection prevented allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis has changed to the microbial hypothesis, in which exposure to...

Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children
Byoung-Ju Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(6):185-192.   Published online June 21, 2012

The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently,...

Original Article
Hu.4-1BB-Fc fusion protein inhibits allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma
Byoung-Ju Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Ju-Hee Seo, Won-Ah Choi, Young-Jun Kim, Mi-Jin Kang, Jinho Yu, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):373-379.   Published online September 30, 2011
Purpose

4-1BB (CD 137) is a costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T-cells. Repression by 4-1BB is thought to attenuate Th2-mediated allergic reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4-1BB on allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model.

Methods

BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Hu.4-1BB-Fc was administered 1 day before the first OVA...

Clinical characteristics and outcomes among pediatric patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection
Eun Lee, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyung-Young Kim, Shin Na, Sung-Han Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Byoung-Ju Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(8):329-334.   Published online August 31, 2011
Purpose

The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and epidemiologic features and outcomes among children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the charts of hospitalized pediatric patients (<18 years) diagnosed with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea, between September 2009 and February 2010.

Results

A total...

Association study of polymorphism in leukotriene C4 synthase and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 genes with phenotype of asthma and clinical parameters in Korean children
Jung Yeon Shim, Byung-Joo Kim, Young Hwa Song, Mi-Jin Kang, So-Yeon Lee, Jinho Yu, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(6):680-688.   Published online June 15, 2009
Purpose : Cysteinyl leukotrienes are important proinflammatory mediators in asthma. Recently, it was suggested that a promoter polymorphism in the genes encoding for leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S), a key enzyme in the leukotriene synthetic pathway, and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) might be associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. We investigated whether polymorphisms in LTC4S and CysLTR1 genes or their interactions were...
Nationwide surveillance of acute interstitial pneumonia in Korea
Byoung-Ju Kim, Han A Kim, Young-Hwa Song, Jinho Yu, Seonguk Kim, Seong Jong Park, Kyung Won Kim, Kyu-Earn Kim, Dong Soo Kim, June Dong Park, Kang Mo Ahn, Hyo-Bin Kim, Hyang-Min Jung, Chun Kang, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(3):324-329.   Published online March 15, 2009
Purpose : Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a rare disease, but its prognosis is fatal because of lack of efficient treatment modality. Recently, it has been reported that there was epidemic AIP in Korea. This study aims to investigate the past and current status of AIP in Korea. Methods : We performed a nationwide survey and a prospective study. From August...
Epidemic acute interstitial pneumonia in children occurred during the early 2006s
Chong Kun Cheon, Hyun-Seung Jin, Eun Kyeong Kang, Hyo Bin Kim, Byoung-Joo Kim, Jinho Yu, Seong Jong Park, Soo-Jong Hong, June Dong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(4):383-390.   Published online April 15, 2008
Purpose : This study was aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with acute interstitial pneumonia who had presented similar clinical patterns from March to June, 2006 and to describe our experience of treatment and to identify risk factors associated with prognosis. Methods : The clinical characteristics, radiologic and histopathologic findings and response to steroids of 15 patients (non-survival...
Review Article
The prevalences of asthma and allergic diseases in Korean children
Soo-Jong Hong, Kang-Mo Ahn, Soo-Young Lee, Kyu-Earn Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(4):343-350.   Published online April 15, 2008
Asthma and allergic diseases are one of the most common disorders in children. Due to its increased prevalence, as well as the increased morbidity and mortality from these diseases, asthma and allergic diseases have come to be recognized as a major worldwide public health issue. In addition, socioeconomic burden of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in Korea also. The...
Original Article
Asthma predictive index in children with recurrent wheezing
Joo Young Jang, Hyo Bin Kim, So Yeon Lee, Ja Hyung Kim, Bong Seong Ki, Hee Jung Seo, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(3):298-304.   Published online March 15, 2006
Purpose : We compared the asthma predictive index(API) and the modified asthma predictive index (mAPI) of the Tuscon Children's Respiratory Study Group in Korean children with recurrent wheezing. We investigated the atopic profiles and presence of allergen sensitization of each risk group, and ascertained the significant clinical risk factors. Methods : Two hundred and sixty two children, who visited for recurrent...
Airway Compression or Airway Anomaly Causing Respiratory Symptoms in Infants and Children with Cardiovascular Diseases
Ja-Hyeong Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Eun Koo, Sung-Jong Park, Young-Hui Kim, In-Suk Park, Jae-Kon Ko, Dong-Man Seo, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(7):737-744.   Published online July 15, 2005
Purpose : Infants and children with cardiovascular diseases often present with respiratory symptoms. However, missed or delayed evaluation for potential airway problem may complicate overall prognosis. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical characteristics of these patients and explore the cause of airway problem. Methods : We reviewed the medical records of 64 patients(M : F=33:31, mean...
Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children
Jung-Min Ko, Eun-Ju Ha, Eun-Hee Lee, So-Youn Lee, Hyo-Bin Kim, Soo-Jong Hong, Seong-Jong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(6):599-605.   Published online June 15, 2005
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the causes, clinical courses and outcomes in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), and evaluate the physiologic variables as prognostic factors in the patients. Methods : Retrograde medical chart review was carried out in 24 patients who were diagnosed with ARDS at the pediatric intensive care unit(PICU) during 20-month period. Results...
Airway Expandible Metallic Stent Implantation in Children with Tracheal or Bronchial Stenosis
Ju Young Jang, Hyo-Bin Kim, So Yeon Lee, Ja Hyung Kim, Seong Jong Park, Ji Hoon Shin, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(5):512-517.   Published online May 15, 2005
Purpose : In adults, endoscopic tracheobronchial balloon dilatation and stenting have become valuable methods to establish and maintain an adequate airway lumen when tracheomalacia or neoplastic growth compromise the airways. But in children, only a few cases were reported due to technical problems. We report six children who were treated with stent implantation and describe the use and safety of...
Clinical Study of Children Using Home Mechanical Ventilation
Young Joon Ahn, Seung Hyeon Lee, Hyo-Bin Kim, Seong Jong Park, Tae Sung Ko, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(4):401-405.   Published online April 15, 2005
Purpose : The use of mechanically-assisted ventilators at home reduces morbidity and improves the quality of life in children with chronic respiratory failure. But in Korea there is no clinical data of children with home mechanical ventilation. We investigated ventilator types, duration, the causes of failure or death, and the cost needed for care. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the medical...
The Utilities of Lung Biopsy in Pediatric Lung Disease
Jae Hee Lee, So Yeon Lee, Ja Hyung Kim, Bong Sung Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(12):1230-1234.   Published online December 15, 2003
Purpose : The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of lung biopsies for the management of children with lung disease. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 19 lung biopsies done at Asan Medical Center, Seoul between 1993 and 2001. Data gathered included demographic information, underlying conditions, diagnosis before biopsy, final diagnosis, change in therapy, morbidity and mortality. Results : Nineteen...
Case Report
A Case of Coil Embolization in a 15-year-old Child with Pulmonary Sequestration
Hyo Bin Kim, Ja Hyung Kim, Jong Seung Lee, Soo-Jong Hong, Gyou Bo Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(4):385-388.   Published online April 15, 2003
Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital mass of nonfunctional pulmonary tissue that lacks a normal-connection with the bronchial tree or the pulmonary arteries. It is clinically asymptomatic but when it is complicated with recurrent infection, it needs to be treated. Conventionally, surgical removal was recommended, but these days we are trying new and less invasive techniques, such as arterial embolization....
Original Article
Clinical Study of Childhood Accidents from a Hospital Over Ten Years with Regard to Foreign Body Aspiration
Cheol-Min Kim, Jun-Young Song, Ja Hyung Kim, Ki Soo Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(9):1134-1140.   Published online September 15, 2002
Purpose : Childhood accidents have been increasing recently. Accidents rank as the leading cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. We performed this study to evaluate the causes of childhood accidents. Methods : The authors analysed retrospectively the medical records of 6,410 cases of childhood accidental injuries who visited the emergency room of Asan Medical Center from January 1990 to December...
A Study on Central Vein Cannulation Using Audible Doppler Guidance in Children and Infants
Young Joon Ahn, Jin Young Jung, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(9):1120-1125.   Published online September 15, 2002
Purpose : Percutaneous cannulation of the central vein in children and infants may be technically difficult and can cause serious complications. There are many techniques to improve the success rate and to decrease the complications in central vein cannulation. This study was undertaken to determine whether audible Doppler guidance can help operators improve the results of central vein cannultion in...
Analysis of Etiology and Prognosis of Pulmonary Complications in Children with Hematological or Oncological Disorders in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Jin Young Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Young Jun An, Ja Hyung Kim, Jong Jin Seo, Hyung Nam Moon, Thad Ghim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(8):1000-1006.   Published online August 15, 2002
Purpose : In the course of treatment, patients with hematological or oncological disorders often develop pulmonary complication. The patients who develop a severe pulmonary complication have a poor outlook. The causes of pulmonary complication are either infectious or non-infectious in origin. We have analyzed the etiology and outcome of these patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of Asan...
Characterization of Mutations in Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase(Btk) Gene from Unrelated 3 X-linked Agammaglobulinemia(XLA) Families in Korea
Chang-Hwa Song, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Jeong-Kyu Park, Jung-Soo Kim, Soo-Jong Hong, Jae-Ho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(3):302-310.   Published online March 15, 2002
Purpose : X-linked agammaglobulinemia(XLA) is an immunodeficiency caused by abnormalities in Bruton's tyrosine kinase(Btk), and is characterized by a deficiency of peripheral blood B cells. We studied cytoplasmic expression of Btk protein and analyzed the Btk gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) from three XLA families in Korea. Methods : Heparinized venous blood samples were collected from four XLA patients...
Clinical Spectrum and Lung Pathology in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease
Ji-Hyun Chung, Seung-Ju Ha, Bong-Seong Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(1):79-87.   Published online January 15, 2002
Purpose : Interstitial lung disease(ILD) is a rare and poorly characterized disorder in children with poor prognosis. To understand the ILD in children, we reviewed our experience with 21 patients who were diagnosed interstitial lung disease during 9-year period at Asan Medical Center retrospectively. Methods : Severity-of-illness score was measured by the Denver protocol. We evaluated underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, high resolution computed tomography findings,...
Case Report
A Case of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Coronary Aneurysm
Hee Jeong, Bong Seong Kim, Ok Ja Choi, Han Wook Yoo, So Duk Lim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(6):687-693.   Published online June 15, 2001
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection(CAEBV) is a nonfamilial syndrome that shows a specific immunodeficiency for the Epstein-Barr virus(EBV). CAEBV is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatitis, interstitial pneumonitis, interstitial nephritis, and uveitis. Cardiovascular complications are rare in EBV infection. Patients with CAEBV show characteristically high titers of anti-viral capsid antigen(VCA) IgG antibody and anti-early antigen(EA) antibody, as well as relatively...
Original Article
Etiology and Clinical Features of Severe Acute Viral Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Children
Noo Lee Jeon, Bong Seong Kim, Yoo Kyum Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(12):1558-1568.   Published online December 15, 2000
Purpose : The purpose of the study is to understand the etiology and clinical features of severe acute viral lower respiratory tract infection(LRI), especially in conjunction with the use of ventilator care and/or with bronchiolitis obliterans. Methods : Etiologic agents and clinical features of severe acute viral LRI were studied from July 1998 through June 1999 in children at Asan Medical...
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