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Original Article
Immunology
Immunogenicity and safety of a 12-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants aged 6–10 weeks: a randomized double-blind active-controlled trial
Jonghoon Shin, Jamaree Teeratakulpisarn, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Tuangtip Theerawit, Ji Hwa Ryu, Jinhwan Shin, Seulgi Lee, Hayoung Lee, Kyungjun An, Hun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):265-271.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: The immunogenicity and safety of GBP411 when administered to healthy infants are not understood.
Finding: The intergroup differences were not significant for all 12 serotypes after the booster dose. The overall incidence of solicited local adverse events between the groups did not differ significantly.
Meaning: GBP411 with a 2p+1 dosing schedule induced a substantial immune response, and may be safe for administration to healthy infants.
Editorial
Allergy
Trends in prevalence of allergic diseases in Korean children: how and why?
Kyung Suk Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):263-264.   Published online April 13, 2020
Gastroenterology
Management of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano in infants and children
Jinyoung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):261-262.   Published online March 23, 2020
Infection
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: choice of schedule and product development
Jin Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):259-260.   Published online April 27, 2020
Review Article
Pulmonology
The past, present, and future of humidifier disinfectant-associated interstitial lung diseases in children
Eun Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):251-258.   Published online December 9, 2019
Exposure to environmental factors can cause interstitial lung diseases (ILDs); however, such types of ILDs are rare. From 2007 to 2011, an ILD epidemic occurred in South Korea owing to inhalational exposure to toxic chemicals in humidifier disinfectants (HDs). HD-associated ILDs (HD-ILDs) are characterized by rapidly progressing respiratory failure with pulmonary fibrosis and a high mortality rate of 43.8%−58.0%. Although...
Immunology
Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and early immunomodulators
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):239-250.   Published online June 18, 2020
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Although its etiologic agent is discovered as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are many unsolved issues in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. The causes of different clinical phenotypes and incubation periods among individuals, species specificity, and cytokine storm with lymphopenia as well as the mechanism of damage to organ...
Perspective
Infection
COVID-19 in children: reasons for uneventful clinical course
Sweni Shah, Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):237-238.   Published online June 18, 2020
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Ability of children to perform touchscreen gestures and follow prompting techniques when using mobile apps
Savita Yadav, Pinaki Chakraborty, Arshia Kaul, Pooja, Bhavya Gupta, Anchal Garg
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):232-236.   Published online February 5, 2020
Background: Children today get access to smartphones at an early age. However, their ability to use mobile apps has not yet been studied in detail.
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the ability of children aged 2–8 years to perform touchscreen gestures and follow prompting techniques, i.e., ways apps provide instructions on how to use them. Methods: We developed one mobile app...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Synbiotics use for preventing sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a randomized controlled trial
Ozge Serce Pehlevan, Derya Benzer, Tugba Gursoy, Guner Karatekin, Fahri Ovali
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):226-231.   Published online February 5, 2020
Background: Probiotics and prebiotics have strain-specific effects on the host. Synbiotics, a mixture of probiotics and prebiotics, are proposed to have more beneficial effects on the host than either agent has alone.
Purpose: We performed a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium together with oligosaccharides and lactoferrin on the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis...
Long-term cognitive, executive, and behavioral outcomes of moderate and late preterm at school age
Ju Hyun Jin, Shin Won Yoon, Jungeun Song, Seong Woo Kim, Hee Jung Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):219-225.   Published online September 25, 2019
Question: Infants born at moderate to late preterm gestations are known to have little problem later on, but is that really true?
Finding: At school age, cognitive problem was observed in about a quarter of the children. In addition, more than half of the children was suspected of having attention problems.
Meaning: Moderate to late preterm infants are at risk of developing abnormal intelligence and attention problems at early school age, therefore they should not be neglected on longterm follow-up evaluation.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Should we regularly evaluate the neurodevelopmental status of moderate and late preterm infants?
Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):217-218.   Published online June 11, 2020
Allergy
Are you sure that it is a drug allergy?
Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):213-214.   Published online June 1, 2020
Review Article
Allergy
Drug Allergy in Children: What Should We Know?
Ji Soo Park, Dong In Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):203-210.   Published online November 12, 2019
The drug allergy “label” may have a lifetime of consequences for a child. Many children with alleged drug allergies are proven to be tolerant to the culprit medication when challenged. The field of drug hypersensitivity is a recently evolving field of research, but studies on its epidemiology and diagnostic tools are lacking in children. Clinical history is significant in the...
Neurology
Genetic tests by next-generation sequencing in children with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):195-202.   Published online November 4, 2019
Developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techogies have assisted in clarifying the diagnosis and treatment of developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) via molecular genetic testing. Advances in DNA sequencing technology have not only allowed the evolution of targeted panels but also, and more currently enabled genome-wide analyses to progress from research era to clinical practice. Broad acceptance of accuracy- guided targeted gene...
Original Article
Cardiology
Importance of pulmonary valve morphology for pulmonary valve preservation in tetralogy of Fallot surgery: comparison of the echocardiographic parameters
Su Jin Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Da Eun Roh, Myung Chul Hyun, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):189-194.   Published online November 8, 2019
Question: Is echocardiographic examination is useful for surgical method decision in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?
Finding: Various echocardiographic parameters serve as predictors for determining surgical methods for TOF patients. However, the PV morphology and tissue characteristics should also be considered.
Meaning: A full dependence on the size of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), the z score, and the ratio of the size of PVA to aortic valve annulus or descending aorta surgery may result in inadequate surgical results during TOF total correction.
Critical Care Medicine
Assessment of interhospital transport care for pediatric patients
Krittiya Chaichotjinda, Marut Chantra, Uthen Pandee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):184-188.   Published online August 29, 2019
Background: Many critically ill patients require transfer to a higher-level hospital for complex medical care. Despite the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for pediatric interhospital transportation services and the establishment of many pediatric transport programs, adverse events during pediatric transport still occur.
Purpose: To determine the incidence of adverse events occurring during pediatric transport and explore their complications...
Editorial
Emergency Medicine
Pediatric transport medicine: a yet unknown territory in Korea
Jeong-Min Ryu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):182-183.   Published online May 15, 2020
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Dapsone: a steroid-sparing drug for refractory immunoglobulin A vasculitis?
Jin-Soon Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):178-179.   Published online April 14, 2020
Review Article
Neurology
Factors associated with seizure and cognitive outcomes after epilepsy surgery for low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors in children
Ara Ko, Joon Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):171-177.   Published online November 13, 2019
Low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (LEATs) are responsible for drug-resistant chronic focal epilepsy, and are the second-most common reason for epilepsy surgery in children. LEATs are extremely responsive to surgical treatment, and therefore epilepsy surgery should be considered as a treatment option for LEATs. However, the optimal time for surgery remains controversial, and surgeries are often delayed. In this review, we...
How can neurological outcomes be predicted in comatose pediatric patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?
Hyo Jeong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):164-170.   Published online October 10, 2019
The prognosis of patients who are comatose after resuscitation remains uncertain. The accurate prediction of neurological outcome is important for management decisions and counseling. A neurological examination is an important factor for prognostication, but widely used sedatives alter the neurological examination and delay the response recovery. Additional studies including electroencephalography, somatosensory-evoked potentials, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers are useful for...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Treatment of refractory IgA vasculitis with dapsone: a systematic review
Keum Hwa Lee, Sung Hwi Hong, Jinhae Jun, Youngheun Jo, Woogyeong Jo, Dayeon Choi, Jeongho Joo, Guhyun Jung, Sunghee Ahn, Andreas Kronbichler, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):158-163.   Published online September 24, 2019
IgA vasculitis, formerly known as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is a systemic IgA-mediated vasculitis of the small vessels commonly seen in children. The natural history of IgA vasculitis is generally self-limiting; however, one-third of patients experience symptom recurrence and a refractory course. This systematic review examined the use of dapsone in refractory IgA vasculitis cases. A literature search of PubMed databases retrieved...
Letter to the Editor
Cardiology
Differences over 10 years in epidemiologic and clinical features of Kawasaki disease at a single tertiary center
Hyun Su Kim, Suk Won Shin, Bo Geum Choi, Hee Joung Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):157-158.   Published online February 5, 2020
Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Variation in clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury in young children undergoing cardiac surgery
Hee Sun Baek, Youngok Lee, Hea Min Jang, Joonyong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Yeo Hyang Kim, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):151-156.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: Can clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury vary on the clinical circumstances?
Finding: In young children undergoing cardiac surgery, urine KIM-1/Cr level peaked at 24 hours with significant difference from baseline level and was significantly higher at 6 hours in the AKI group. However, urine NGAL/Cr and IL-18/Cr levels showed no specific trend with time for 48 hours after cardiac surgery.
Meaning: Urine KIM-1/Cr concentration could be considered a good biomarker for early AKI prediction after open cardiac surgery in young children.
Endocrinology
Effect of agricultural pesticide on precocious puberty in urban children: an exploratory study
Junghwan Suh, Han Saem Choi, Ahreum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):146-150.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: Does agricultural pesticide effect precocious puberty in girls?
Finding: Dinotefuran, an insecticide of neonicotinoid class, was detected in one of 30 patients with precocious puberty, and in 2 girls of the normal control group, which was not statistically significant.
Meaning: There was no close relationship between agricultural pesticides and development of precocious puberty.
Other
Korean parents’ perceptions of the challenges and needs on school re-entry during or after childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-institutional survey by Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Jun Ah Lee, Jae Min Lee, Hyeon Jin Park, Meerim Park, Byung Kiu Park, Hee Young Ju, Ji Yoon Kim, Sang Kyu Park, Young Ho Lee, Ye Jee Shim, Heung Sik Kim, Kyung Duk Park, Yeon-Jung Lim, Hee Won Chueh, Ji Kyoung Park, Soon Ki Kim, Hyoung Soo Choi, Hyo Seop Ahn, Jeong Ok Hah, Hyoung Jin Kang, Hee Young Shin, Mee Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):141-145.   Published online November 14, 2019
Question: What are the parental needs and challenges when their children return to school after cancer?
Finding: In addition to scholastic aptitude-oriented programs, emotional and psychosocial support is necessary for a successful return to school.
Meaning: Pediatric oncologists should actively engage in improving oncology practices to better integrate individualized school plans and educate peers and teachers to improve health literacy to make them understand the needs of children with cancer.
Nutrition
Positive association of breastfeeding on respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized infants: a multicenter retrospective study
Min Jeong Jang, Yong Joo Kim, Shinhye Hong, Jaeyoon Na, Jong Hee Hwang, Son Moon Shin, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):135-140.   Published online November 12, 2019
Question: Human milk has stronger antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties compared with formula milk. How dose breastfeeding affect respiratory syncytial virus infection in Korea?
Finding: Breastfed infants required less oxygen therapy and possible intensive care unit admission than artificial formulafed infants during respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Meaning: This protective role of breast milk on RSV severity can be a supporting evidence for promoting breastfeeding in Korea.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Epidermal growth factor as a reliable marker of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates
Na Mi Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):133-134.   Published online September 18, 2019
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