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Volume 52(1); Jan 2009
Ethical considerations for clinical trials performed in children
Myungho Oh
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2009
Children are not small adults and there is a need to carry out specific trials that cannot be performed in adults. In general, children (minors) are unable to consent but their assent should be obtained using age appropriate information. Institutional Review Board (IRB) need paediatric expertise to balance the benefits and risks of research in children. The lack of consent...
Review Articles
Recent progress in the understanding of clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Beyong Il Kim
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):6-13.   Published online January 15, 2009
Recent advances in perinatal care have resulted in improved survival of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). However, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains one of the major complications in ELBWI. BPD was originally described over 40 years ago; the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of BPD have changed markedly through this period. In this article, I have reviewed recent progress in...
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants in Korea, 1984-2008
In Kyung Sung
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):14-21.   Published online January 15, 2009
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) in Korea on 14 reports from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. Follow-up rates were varied from 42.9% to 90.2%. Duration of follow-up ranged from 4 months to 5 years. The prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) of VLBWI was as follows: 4.3-5.3% in 1980s, 7.1-9.1...
Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) revisited
Jeong Hun Kim, Young Suk Yu
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):22-27.   Published online January 15, 2009
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of blindness that affects premature infants. With advances in neonatology, ROP is likely to emerge as the most serious problem of vision loss in children even in developed countries; such a situation could be called the third epidemic of ROP. However, controversy and uncertainty still surround favorable outcomes of ROP. For successfully...
Original Articles
Effects of soy-based formula on infants` growth and blood laboratory values spanning 3 years after birth
Ji Eun Yoon, Mi-Jung Kim, Heon-Seok Han
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):28-35.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : We compared body growth, blood cell counts, and chemistry among infants receiving soy-based formula (SF), breast milk (BM), and casein-based formula (CF). Methods : Full-term neonates delivered at our hospital from June 2001 to August 2003 were recruited and divided into 3 feeding groups (BM=20, SF=19, CF=12) according to the parents wishes. Breast feeding or artificial formulae were...
Angiotensinogen gene M235T polymorphism as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive adolescents
Joo Hyun Gil, Jung Ah Lee, Eun Young Park, Young Mi Hong
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):36-43.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been demonstrated to play a major role in regulating blood pressure. Therefore, components of the RAS are likely candidate genes that may predispose an individual to essential hypertension and cardiovascular complications. Among them, the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene has been speculated to be associated with elevated circulating angiotensinogen concentrations and essential...
The effects of early surfactant treatment and minimal ventilation on prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in respiratory distress syndrome
Jong Jin Park, Pil Sang Lee, Sang Geel Lee
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):44-49.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : Early surfactant treatment and minimal ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia needed prolonged oxygen supplement is a problem. This study aimed to report the effects of early surfactant treatment and minimal ventilation on the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in respiratory distress syndrome. Methods : We retrospectively studied 139 premature newborn infants (gestational age, 36 weeks; birth weight, 1,500 gm) admitted to...
The outcomes of retinopathy of prematurity in relation to duration of low dose oxygen therapy
Pil Sang Lee, Jae Won Choi, Sang Geel Lee
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):50-55.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : This study aimed to determine the influence of low-dose oxygen (FiO2 <25%) therapy through nasal cannulae on the progress and prognosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) as well as methods of preventing ROP. Methods : Our subjects comprised premature infants (gestation period <37 weeks; birth weight <1,750 g) born in Daegu Fatima Hospital between February 1, 2001 and...
Rotavirus-associated neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
Hyun Joo Seo, Yu Jin Jung, Soo Kyung Park, Seo Hui Choi, Ji Hyuk Lee, Myo Jing Kim, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):56-60.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : This study aimed to test whether rotavirus-associated necrotizing enterocolitis (RV+NEC) produced different clinical findings or outcomes from those of non-rotavirus necrotizing enterocolitis (RV-NEC). Methods : Eight patients from the RV+NEC group and 22 patients from the RV-NEC group diagnosed with modified Bell stage II or higher NEC were selected for this study. Fecal specimens from all infants were tested...
Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children
Soo Jin Lee, Young Min Ahn, Hee Jin Kim
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):61-67.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : The rate of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in children is an indicator of the effectiveness of TB control programs in the community. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB in children and evaluate TB management. Methods : Between January 1999 and July 2007, drug susceptibility tests for anti-TB drugs were employed for patients aged less than 19...
Assessment about the measles elimination from cases and outbreaks, 2002-2007 - Assessment about the measles elimination -
Jae Sung So, Un Yeong Go, Hyun Kyung Oh, Soo Jin Baek, Jong Koo Lee
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):68-74.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : We assessed about the measles elimination in Korea according to analyzing national data on measles cases for 2002-2007. Methods : We estimated the effective reproduction number according to the proportion of imported cases and outbreak size. Results : Eleven cases, thirteen cases, six cases, six cases, 25 cases (60.0% were linked to 1 outbreak of 15 cases), and 180...
Changes in platelet counts caused by valproate in children with epilepsy
Ju Hee We, Young Mi Kim, Sang Ook Nam
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):75-80.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : In adults, valproate (VPA) has been reported to be associated with thrombocytopenia. However, few studies have investigated this association in children, and the factors affecting platelet counts remain controversial. This study was undertaken to investigate changes in platelet counts following VPA therapy and related factors in children with epilepsy. Methods : Our subjects comprised 75 epileptic children who...
Complex febrile convulsions: A clinical study
Jeong Sic Kang, Sa-Ra Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Tae Won Song, Nam Hee Kim, Jong Hee Hwang, Jin Soo Moon, Chong Guk Lee
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):81-86.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : Febrile convulsions are classified into simple or complex types, the latter being characterized by increased risk of recurrence and progression to epilepsy. This study aimed to delineate the clinical characteristics of complex febrile convulsions. Methods : Between January 2003 and December 2006, 550 children were diagnosed with febrile convulsions at the Department of Pediatrics, Ilsan Paik Hospital. Their...
The relationship between catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and coronary artery abnormality in Kawasaki disease
Hyo Jin Lee, Myung Sook Lee, Ji Sook Kim, Eun Ryoung Kim, Sung Wook Kang, Soo Kang Kim, Joo Ho Chun, Kyung Lim Yoon, Mi Young Han, Seong Ho Cha
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):87-92.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : Many gene polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease. Catechol-O- methyltransferase (COMT) plays an important role in the metabolism of catecholamines, catechol estrogen, and catechol drugs. Polymorphisms of the COMT gene are reported to be associated with myocardial infarction and coronary artery abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between COMT...
Outcome of patients with neuroblastoma aged less than 1 year at diagnosis
Jung Min Suh, Sang Goo Lee, Keon Hee Yoo, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Ju Youn Kim, Eun Joo Cho, Suk Koo Lee, Jhingook Kim, Do Hoon Lim
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):93-98.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with neuroblastoma aged less than 1 year. Methods : From January 1997 to December 2007, 41 patients aged less than 1 year were diagnosed with neuroblastoma. Patients were divided into 3 risk groups according to the stage of the disease and N-myc amplification. Low-risk...
Usefulness of DTI-based three dimensional corticospinal tractography in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy
Ji Hyun Yeo, Su Min Son, Eun Sil Lee, Han Ku Moon
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):99-104.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging-based three-dimensional fiber tractography (DTI-FT) is a new method which demonstrates the orientation and integrity of white matter fibers in vivo. However, clinical application on children with cerebral palsy is still under investigation. We present various abnormal patterns of DTI-FT findings and accordance rate with clinical findings in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, to...
The effect of erythropoietin in neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury
Heng-Mi Kim, Byung-Ho Choe, Soon-Hak Kwon, Yoon-Kyung Sohn
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):105-110.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of neonatal mortality and subsequent lifelong neurodevelopmental handicaps. Although many treatment strategies have been tested, there is currently no clinically effective treatment to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of hypoxia and ischemia in humans. Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various brain injury models although the exact...
Effect of genistein on the sexual maturation in immature female rats
Woocheol Lee, Sung-Ho Lee, Ryun-Sup Ahn, Mi Jung Park
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):111-118.   Published online January 15, 2009
Puopose : Exposure to dietary phytoestrogens such as genistein during early childhood is a growing public health concern. We examined the effect of early exposure to genistein on sexual maturation in immature rats. Methods : Weaning (3wk-old) Sprague-Dawley female rats were assigned to three groups (n=6 for each): fed by high dose of genistein (100 mg/kg/d), low dose of genistein...
Case Reports
Hand-Foot syndrome induced by sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in a patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma
Seung Hyun Lee, Sung Hun Noh, Sun Young Kim, Kyu Yun Jang, Pyoung Han Hwang
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):119-123.   Published online January 15, 2009
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arising from epithelial cells of the renal tubules is a highly aggressive and malignant tumor in all ages; however, it rarely occurs in children. the standard treatment for RCC is radical nephrectomy with lymph node dissection when the tumor is localized and can be completely resected. Adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy are used for pediatric patients...
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation manifesting with perioral cyanosis and dyspnea on exertion: A case report
Yu Kyung Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Gun Lee, Man Yong Han
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):124-128.   Published online January 15, 2009
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are direct communications between pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins, resulting in right-to-left shunts that may cause cyanosis, dyspnea, and digital clubbing. Neurological complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage or brain abscess may result from cerebral thrombosis or emboli. In most cases, they remain unrecognized until the late teenage years. Here, we report a case of a 6-year-old...
Changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in a neonate with symptomatic isolated left ventricular noncompaction
Ji Hyeun Song, Yeo Hyang Kim, Chun Soo Kim, Sang Lak Lee, Tae Chan Kwon
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(1):129-132.   Published online January 15, 2009
We describe here our experience with a neonate presenting with cyanosis, grunting, and cardiomegaly, who was diagnosed with isolated left ventricular noncompaction (IVNC) by echocardiography. The patient had high levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) and symptoms of heart failure including poor feeding and tachypnea. During the period in which NT pro-BNP levels steadily increased, the patient suffered...
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