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Volume 52(8); Aug 2009
Review Articles
The change of perspective on brain death, euthanasia and withdrawal of the life supporting medical treatments in Korea for pediatric patients
Ivo Kwon
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):843-850.
A recent High Court's decision regarding the withdrawal of life supporting medical treatment (artificial ventilator) from an elderly female patient in the terminal stage has opened up a new era of the "euthanasia dispute" in Korea. With this decision, the legitimate withdrawal of life supporting treatment became possible under certain conditions and the Korean Medical Association is working toward the establishment of practical...
What can we do for dying neonate in NICU?
Chung-Sik Chun
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):851-855.   Published online August 15, 2009
Death is not only a medical problem; it is also an ethical problem. When doctors face a dying neonate, their knowledge of bioethics and the opinions of ethical specialists and religious leaders are helpful for them and the family of the dying baby. In recent years, due to the increase of surviving babies who have suffered from severe illness, those born too...
Brain death and organ transplantation
Sang-Ook Nam
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):856-861.   Published online August 15, 2009
Cardiopulmonary arrest has long been accepted as an unquestionable definition of death. An advent of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and artificial ventilation along with the development of organ transplantation has prompted the emergence of the concept of brain death. The criteria for brain death are based mainly on the clinical examination of coma, apnea and total loss of brain stem function. Although organ transplantation by...
Novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza
Jina Lee, Hoan Jong Lee
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):862-868.   Published online August 15, 2009
Since its identification in April 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus (S-OIV) which is a reassortment of gene segments from both North American triple-reassortant and Eurasian swine influenza has been widely spread among humans in unexpected rapidity. To date, each gene segment of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) outbreak viruses have shown high (99.9%) neucleotide sequence identity. As of July 6, 94,512...
Original Articles
Short-lasting headaches in children and adolescents
Young-il Rho
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):869-874.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:Short attacks of headache are present in the pediatric age group. Short-lasting headaches (SLH) have been infrequently reported in children and adolescents. This study aims to assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of short-lasting headaches in children and adolescents. Methods:One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients attended the Chosun University Hospital Headache Center between March 2006 and July 2007. Among 123 headache patients, 44...
A study on the incidence of anemia according to feeding patterns and the status of weaning diet
Hyun Ji Kim, Mee Yong Shin, Sung Shin Kim, Jae Ock Park, Chang Hwi Kim
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):875-880.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:Iron-deficiency anemia remains the most common nutritional deficiency in young infants. This study aimed to survey the actual condition of feeding patterns and weaning diet and to study the association between these factors and the prevalence of anemia in infants aged over 9 months. Methods:We studied 171 infants aged 9-24 months who were hospitalized in the general ward with mild to moderate acute illnesses....
Changes in the outcomes of neonatal intensive care unit at a single center over 12 years
Hyun-Hee Lee, Tae-Yeon Kim, Seon-Hee Shin, Tae-Jung Sung
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):881-887.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:The survival rate of very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) had increased as a result of advances in neonatal intensive care. We evaluated the changes in outcomes of VLBWI who admitted to the neonatal care unit of Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital. Methods:Retrospective review of 339 VLBWI who were born from 1st January 1997 to 31th December 2008 were performed. Outcomes including survival...
Readmission of late preterm infants after discharge from nursery
Myo Jing Kim
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):888-892.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:To evaluate the risk factors for hospital readmission during the neonatal period among late preterm infants who were discharged after nursery care. Methods:In this retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of 135 late preterm infants readmitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the neonatal period, after discharge from nursery of IL Sin Christian Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. We compared...
The effects of neonatal ventilator care or maternal chorioamnionitis on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Ki Tae Yun, Whan Dong Lee, Sang Geel Lee
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):893-897.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:Advances in neonatal intensive care have improved the survival rate of low-birth-weight infants, but mild bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with the accompanying need for prolonged oxygen supplement remains problematic. Maternal chorioamnionitis and neonatal ventilator care affect the development of BPD. This study aimed to examine whether maternal chorioamnionitis or neonatal ventilator care affect the development of BPD dependently or independently. Methods:We performed a retrospective study...
Predictive factors for severe infection among febrile infants younger than three months of age
Eun Young Cho, Hwa Song, Ae Suk Kim, Sun Ju Lee, Dong Seok Lee, Doo Kwun Kim, Sung Min Choi, Kwan Lee, Byoung Chan Park
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):898-903.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:This study investigated the predictive factors for identifying infection-prone febrile infants younger than three months. Methods:We conducted a retrospective study of 167 infants younger than three months with an axillary temperature >38℃ who were hospitalized between 2006 and 2008. If they met any of the following criteria, positive blood culture, CSF WBC ≥ 11/mm3 or positive CSF culture, urinalysis WBC ≥6/HPF and positive...
Pulmonary tuberculosis misdiagnosed as lung Metastasis in childhood cancer patients
Hyun Rae KK, Dong Whand Lim, Kang Min, Kyung Duk Park, Jun Ah Lee, Soo Yeon Cho, Yoon Hoh Kook, Hee Youn Kim, Dong Ho Kim
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):904-909.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:The differential diagnosis for a pulmonary nodule is intriguing in cancer patients. Metastasis might be a preferential diagnosis, and yet possibilities of other medical conditions still exist. Pulmonary tuberculosis should be enlisted in the differential diagnosis for a pulmonary nodule in cancer patients in Korea. This study was aimed at analyzing the incidence and clinical features of pulmonary tuberculosis that were misdiagnosed as...
Outcomes of the arterial switch operation in complete transposition of the great arteries
Min Jung Cho, Ji Ae Park, Hyoung Doo Lee, Si Chan Sung, Ki Seok Choo
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):910-916.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:The arterial switch operation (ASO) has become the preferred procedure for the surgical management of transposition of the great arteries (TGA). We conducted a retrospective evaluation of our experience in 30 patients seen from January 2003 to July 2008, in order to determine outcomes and related risk factors after the arterial switch operation. Methods:Patients charts, surgical reports, and echocardiograms were retrospectively reviewed. And...
Clinical study of urinary tract infection, natural courses, and prenatal ultrasonographic results according to the grades of hydronephrosis
Jee-Hee Lee, Jun-Woo Kim, Ji-Eun Yoon, Tae-Sun Ha
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):917-921.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:Although renal ultrasonography (USG) has improved the detection rate of hydronephrosis (HN), its clinical courses and postnatal management remains controversial. Here, we reviewed the clinical features of patients with HN according to the grades. Methods:We retrospectively studied 207 patients who were regularly followed-up among 367 patients with HN detected by renal USG postnatally between April 1998 and December 2007. These patients were grouped...
Growth responses to growth hormone therapy in children with attenuated growth who showed normal growth hormone response to stimulation tests
Jae Hyun Kim, Hey Rim Chung, Young Ah Lee, Sun Hee Lee, Ji Hyub Kim, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):922-929.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:The aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics and responses to growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with attenuated growth who showed normal GH responses to GH stimulation tests (GHST). Methods:The study included 39 patients with height velocity (HV) of less than 4 cm/yr and normal GHST results. Clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results:Eleven were born as small for gestational age (SGA)...
Comparison and analysis of the effectiveness to high dose of aspirin and ibuprofen in acute phase of Kawasaki disease
Seung-woon Keum, Yeon Kyun Oh, Jong Duck Kim, Seung-taek Yu
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):930-937.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:We evaluated the effectiveness of treatment and cardiac complications of replacing a high dose of aspirin with a high dose of ibuprofen for children in acute phase of Kawasaki disease. We also analyzed the possibility of replacing a high dose of aspirin with a high dose of ibuprofen to prevent complications such as Reye s syndrome caused by aspirin. Methods:One hundred eight children...
Effect of renin inhibition on an experimental glomerulonephritis - a preliminary report
Ju Hyung Kang, Jae Kyung Huh, Young Sook Lee, Ji Young Han, Il Soo Ha
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):938-943.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:We performed this study in order to investigate the effect of direct renin inhibition on an experimental animal model with nephrotoxic serum nephritis and tried to give useful information for clinical research and renin inhibitor treatment. Methods:Thirty BALB/c 6-week-old male mice were divided into 4 groups: control group (CO, n=5), control-treatment group with aliskiren (CT, n=5), disease group (DO, n=10), and disease treatment...
Effect of angiotensin II inhibition on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in developing rat kidney
Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo, In Sun Bae, Young Sook Hong, Joo Won Lee
Korean J Pediatr. 2009;52(8):944-952.   Published online August 15, 2009

Purpose:To investigate the effects of angiotensin II inhibition on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the developing kidney, we tested the expression of EMT markers and nestin in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-treated kidneys. Methods:Newborn rat pups were treated with enalapril (30 mg/kg/d) or a vehicle for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), E-cadherin, vimentin, and nestin were...
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