Article 54(9); Sep 2011
Review Articles
Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants
Meayoung Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):359-362.   Published online September 30, 2011

There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below...

Catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care units
Jung Hyun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):363-367.   Published online September 30, 2011

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are regularly used in intensive care units, and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) remains a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in preterm infants. Increased survival rate of extremely-low-birth-weight infants can be partly attributed to routine practice of CVC placement. The most common types of CVCs used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) include umbilical venous catheters,...

An update on necrotizing enterocolitis: pathogenesis and preventive strategies
Jang Hoon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):368-372.   Published online September 30, 2011

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most critical morbidities in preterm infants. The incidence of NEC is 7% in very-low-birth-weight infants, and its mortality is 15 to 30%. Infants who survive NEC have various complications, such as nosocomial infection, malnutrition, growth failure, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and neurodevelopmental delays. The most important etiology in the pathogenesis of NEC...

Original Articles
Hu.4-1BB-Fc fusion protein inhibits allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma
Byoung-Ju Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Ju-Hee Seo, Won-Ah Choi, Young-Jun Kim, Mi-Jin Kang, Jinho Yu, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):373-379.   Published online September 30, 2011
Purpose

4-1BB (CD 137) is a costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T-cells. Repression by 4-1BB is thought to attenuate Th2-mediated allergic reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4-1BB on allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model.

Methods

BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Hu.4-1BB-Fc was administered 1 day before the first OVA...

Short term outcomes of topiramate monotherapy as a first-line treatment in newly diagnosed West syndrome
Gyu Min Lee, Kyung Suk Lee, Eun Hye Lee, Sajun Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):380-384.   Published online September 30, 2011
Purpose

To investigate the efficacy of topiramate monotherapy in West syndrome prospectively.

Methods

The study population included 28 patients (15 male and 13 female children aged 2 to 18 months) diagnosed with West syndrome. After a 2-week baseline period for documentation of the frequency of spasms, topiramate was initiated at 2 mg/kg/day. The dose was increased by 2 mg/kg every week to a...

Case Reports
Candida tropicalis arthritis of the elbow in a patient with Ewing's sarcoma that successfully responded to itraconazole
Seung Youn Kim, Jung Sub Lim, Dong Hwan Kim, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Joong Bum Cho, Jun Ah Lee, Dong Ho Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):385-388.   Published online September 30, 2011

Fungal infections are rarely responsible for arthritis. Few cases of fungal arthritis have been reported, even in immunocompromised hosts susceptible to low-virulence organisms. Herein, the authors report the first case of Candida tropicalis arthritis in a child with a solid tumor. A 13-year-old boy with Ewing's sarcoma developed arthritis in his elbow during the neutropenic period after chemotherapy. Despite treatment...

Transient asymptomatic white matter lesions following Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis
Yoon Young Jang, Kye Hyang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(9):389-393.   Published online September 30, 2011

We present the case of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis who developed abnormal white matter lesions during the chronic phases of the infection. A 2-year-old-boy was admitted for a 2 day history of decreased activity with ataxic gait. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable except for generalized lethargy and enlarged tonsils with exudates. Brain magnetic resonance...

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