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Bacteremia in Pediatric Cancer Patients : Causative Organisms and Antibiotic Sensitivities

Korean Journal of Pediatrics 2005;48(6):619-623.
Published online June 15, 2005.
Bacteremia in Pediatric Cancer Patients : Causative Organisms and Antibiotic Sensitivities
Yong-Han Kim, Hyun-Dong Lee, Jeong-Ok Hah
Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
소아 암 환자에서 발생한 균혈증 : 원인균과 항생제 감수성
김용한, 이현동, 하정옥
영남대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실
Correspondence: 
Jeong-Ok Hah, Email: johah@med.yu.ac.kr
Abstract
Purpose
: Bacteremia in immunocompromised pediatric cancer patients can lead to high morbidity and mortality, if not treated early and properly. The incidence and antibiotic sensitivities to common pathogens of bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients are liable to change, according to region and time. We investigated the causative organisms and antibiotic sensitivities of bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients to assess the adequacy of empiric antimicrobial therapy.
Methods
: From September 1995 to August 2003, we retrospectively evaluated 58 episodes in 39 pediatric cancer patients with bacteremia treated at the Pediatric Department of Yeungnam University Hospital. We investigated and analyzed the causative organisms and the antibiotic sensitivity test results by reviewing the records of the microbiologically proven positive blood culture results.
Results
: The incidence of bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients in this study was 5.7 percent (58 episodes out of 1,022 occasions of blood cultures). Gram-positive organisms were isolated more often than gram-negative organisms (63.8 percent vs 36.2 percent) in the following order : Staphylococcus epidermidis (37.9 percent), Staphylococcus aureus (17.3 percent), Escherichia coli (12 percent), Streptococcus (8.6 percent), Enterobacter (6.9 percent), Klesiella (6.9 percent), Serratia (3.5 percent), Acinetobacter (3.5 percent), Proteus (1.7 percent) and Morganella morganii (1.7 percent). In antibiotic sensitivity tests, only six of 37 isolates (16 percent) of gram positive bacteria were sensitive to penicillin and 15 of 37 isolates (40 percent) were sensitive to oxacillin. All except one Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to vancomycin and all except one Staphylococcus epidermidis were sensitive to teicoplanin among 37 isolates of gram positive bacteria. In the case of gram negative bacteria, two of 21 isolates (10 percent) and four of 21 isolates (19 percent) were sensitive to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, respectively. Only six of 21 isolates (29 percent) were sensitive to aminoglycoside, but all 21 isolates (100 percent) were sensitive to imipenem. All seven isolates tested after the year 2000 were sensitive to meropenem.
Conclusion
: In conclusion, we should choose the proper antimicrobials in treating pediatric cancer patients with suspected bacteremia, reflecting the increasing episodes of gram positive bacteremia and polymicrobial resistance of gram positive and negative organisms.
Key Words: Bacteremia , Gram-positive bacteria , Gram-negative bacteria , Antibiotic sensitivities


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