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Retraction Notice
Coronavirus disease 2019 in a 2-month-old male infant: a case report from Iran
Hosein Heydari, Seyed Kamal Eshagh Hossaini, Ahmad Hormati, Mahboubeh Afifian, Sajjad Ahmadpour
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):417-417.   Published online July 19, 2022
Original Article
Cardiology
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):410-416.   Published online December 8, 2021
In children with primary dyslipidemia, functional myocardial abnormalities can occur at young age, including diastolic functional impairment of both ventricles and narrowing of the aortic valve and the sinus of Valsalva. Echocardiographic evaluations of high-risk children may be as important as biochemical evaluations.
Hematology
Effect of cyclic pamidronate administration on osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major: a single-center study
Mahmoud A. El-Hawy, Nagwan Y. Saleh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):405-409.   Published online June 7, 2022
Question: What is the effect of cyclic pamidronate administration on osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major?
Finding: The dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan findings of children with β-thalassemia major and osteoporosis were improved after pamidronate administration.
Meaning: Cyclic pamidronate effectively treated osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Factors to consider before implementing telemedicine protocols to manage neonatal jaundice
Heui Seung Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):403-404.   Published online April 12, 2022
In the rapidly changing environmental situation during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, neonatal centers have developed telemedicine systems with extended coverage for neonatal monitoring and high-risk follow-up programs including neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. At this point, electronic health technology and noncontact medical system increase the effectiveness of rather than replacing the face-to-face visit and the opinions of experienced neonatologists.
Pulmonology
Now lung ultrasound has been established as a fundamental examination in pediatric respiratory diseases
Kyunghoon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):401-402.   Published online July 13, 2022
· Several studies demonstrated the usefulness of lung ultrasound in pediatric respiratory diseases including coronavirus disease 2019.
· Knowledge of lung ultrasound is increasing, and lung ultrasound has been established as a fundamental diagnostic examination for pediatric respiratory diseases.
Cardiology
Early echocardiographic screening for subclinical myocardial dysfunction in children and adolescents with dyslipidemia: why and when?
Hyun Gyung Lee, Hwa Jin Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):398-400.   Published online March 7, 2022
Dyslipidemia contributes to early atherosclerosis, premature cardiovascular disease, and subclinical ventricular dysfunction in children. This paper highlights the need for echocardiographic evaluation for impaired diastolic function of both ventricles and narrowing of the aortic valve and sinus of Valsalva. Therefore, early echocardiographic screening of children with primary hyperlipidemia should be considered.
Review Article
Neurology
Neonatal seizures: diagnostic updates based on new definition and classification
Eun-Hee Kim, Jeongmin Shin, Byoung Kook Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):387-397.   Published online April 4, 2022
· Neonatal seizures are often electrographic-only seizures without clinical signs; therefore, the identification of electrical seizure activity on electroencephalography is the gold standard for diagnosis.
· Clinical signs of neonatal seizures are divided into motor or nonmotor seizures, and motor seizures are mostly focal or multifocal.
· Most neonatal seizures are caused by acute symptomatic etiologies, but in cases of intractable seizures, structural, genetic, or metabolic etiologies should be investigated.
Infection
Therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in children and adolescents
Soo-Han Choi, Jae Hong Choi, Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):377-386.   Published online June 27, 2022
· Children and adolescents with high risks for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should be identified and proper treatment should be provided promptly according to the patient’s condition.
· Remdesivir can be considered for pediatric patients of all ages with COVID-19 who have an emergent or increase in supplemental oxygen.
· The use of corticosteroids is not recommended for patients with nonsevere COVID-19. Corticosteroids are recommended in children and adolescents with severe and critical COVID-19.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Neonatal hypertension: concerns within and beyond the neonatal intensive care unit
Kathleen Altemose, Janis M. Dionne
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):367-376.   Published online May 30, 2022
Some neonates, especially those who are premature, may experience hypertension while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The most common causes are prematurity-related and the hypertension usually resolves over the first 1–2 years of life. Unfortunately, the increasing population of NICU graduates is at risk for later cardiovascular and kidney disease in childhood and adulthood. This population requires careful attention to blood pressure and weight throughout their life course.
Original Article
Infection
Role of lung ultrasound patterns in monitoring coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children
Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Subhajit Bhakta, Manas Kumar Mahapatra, Saptarshi Ghosh, Sayantika Saha, Mithun Chandra Konar, Mihir Sarkar, Mousumi Nandi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):358-366.   Published online May 13, 2022
Question: Potential role of patterns of lung ultrasonography (US) in monitoring changes in mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Finding: Interstitial syndrome, an irregular pleural line, and peripheral microconsolidation were the most prevalent findings. Changes in lung aeration after mechanical ventilation corelated with improved oxygenation. A fall in lung ultrasound reaeration score ≤ 5 may predict successful weaning.
Meaning: Lung US is gaining wider utility for monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Neonatal sepsis-causing bacterial pathogens and outcome of trends of their antimicrobial susceptibility a 20-year period at a neonatal intensive care unit
Woo Sun Song, Hye Won Park, Moon Youn Oh, Jae Young Jo, Chae Young Kim, Jung Ju Lee, Euiseok Jung, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):350-357.   Published online December 9, 2021
Question: What is prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing sepsis and their antimicrobial susceptibility over 20 years?
Finding: Coagulase-negative remains most common causative organism. The most common gram-negative organism was Klebsiella pneumonia. The susceptibility of staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumonia showed increased susceptability to oxacillin, cefotaxime and amikacin, gentamicin, respectively.
Meaning: Answers to the question asked is important in choosing antimicrobials and to monitor emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms.
Editorial
Pulmonology
Influence of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on respiratory health in children
Hyo-Bin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):348-349.   Published online May 3, 2022
· Practicing hand hygiene, wearing a mask, maintaining social distancing, and other lockdown measures were implemented to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a worldwide disaster that started in 2019.
· The advent of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic resulted in positive secondary effects, such as reduced respiratory viral infections in children and decreased degrees of air pollution.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Ideal timing for aggressive screening to detect developmental dysplasia of the hip in term and preterm infants
Won-Ho Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):346-347.   Published online March 14, 2022
The risk factors and pathogenesis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are unclear. Moreover, no universal screening method can entirely eliminate the risk of DDH. However, its incidence is significant and its early detection is critical for improving patient prognosis. Although the ideal evaluation time and risk factors, especially for premature infants, are unclear, the necessity for DDH screening programs for term and preterm infants is emerging.
Nutrition
Human milk oligosaccharides as immunonutrition key in early life
Jung Ok Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):344-345.   Published online May 3, 2022
· Human milk is a major source of immunonutrients for neonates and infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) act as prebiotics and promote the growth of commensal bacteria.
· HMOs inhibit microorganism adhesion to the gut mucosa through interactions with the commensal microbiome and improve gut barrier function by increasing short-chain fatty acid mediated by bifidobacteria and immunomodulation.
· Several randomized controlled trials recently reported on HMOs.
Review Article
Gastroenterology
Clinical importance of immunonutrition in infants: a review of the recent literature
Ji Sook Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):337-343.   Published online February 17, 2022
Nutrients are important in the developing immune system. Human milk supplies diverse bioactives to prevent acute infection or chronic inflammation. Immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, and glutamine in human milk decrease gastrointestinal and respiratory infection. Human milk oligosaccharides promote the growth of intestinal microbiota, the gut barrier, and antimicrobial or antiviral activity. Micronutrients act as anti-inflammatory immunonutrients, too. However, the toxicity of some nutrients from an overdose should be considered.
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