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Articles in E-pub version are posted online ahead of regular printed publication.

Editorial
Low bone mineral density can occur in children after shortterm systemic glucocorticoid treatment
Moon Bae Ahn
Received October 29, 2021  Accepted April 13, 2022  
Osteoporosis diagnosed in children with chronic diseases is a major endocrine complication triggered by the disease itself or its treatment. Although age upon starting osteotoxic agents and the their duration of use are vital contributors, spontaneous recovery of bone mass following treatment completion is a privilege of this specific age group. For any patients short-term glucocorticoid therapy, bone health screening is the next step.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.01599    [Epub ahead of print]
Coronavirus disease 2019 and mRNA vaccines: what’s next – miRNA?
Joon Kee Lee, Heon-Seok Han
Received February 16, 2022  Accepted March 12, 2022  
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. The potential role of miRNAs as biomarkers of myocarditis is promising, and miRNAs are expected to be utilized in various clinical fields in the future.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2022.00283    [Epub ahead of print]
Letter to the Editor
Changes in epidemiology of parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus infection during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea
Kyung-Ran Kim, Hwanhee Park, Doo Ri Kim, Yae-Jean Kim
Received December 9, 2021  Accepted February 22, 2022  
Question: How the epidemiology of other childhood respiratory viruses has changed during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea?
Finding: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) typically circulated in the spring, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic started in autumn in Korea before COVID-19 pandemic. PIV and RSV seasons disappeared in 2020 and came back in 2021 with atypical seasonality. PIV season was changed from spring to autumn, and the beginning of RSV season was slightly delayed from autumn to early winter in 2021.
Meaning: Circulation of PIV and RSV was changed to unusual seasons and patterns during COVID-19 pandemic period.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.01823    [Epub ahead of print]
Review Article
Recent trends of healthcare information and communication technologies in pediatrics: a systematic review
Se young Jung, Keehyuck Lee, Hee Hwang
Received July 31, 2020  Accepted November 2, 2021  
· The innovation of healthcare information communication technology (ICT) was accelerated with the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs).
· Telemedicine currently has no technical barriers.
· EHRs and personal health records are being connected, and mobile/wearable technologies are being integrated into them.
· Conventional rule-based clinical decision support systems have already been implemented and used in EHRs and PHRs. Artificial intelligence/machine learning improves precision and accuracy.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.01333    [Epub ahead of print]
Original Article
Neurodevelopmental outcomes and comorbidities of children with congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation using the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children database
Og Hyang Kim, Seung Won Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Yun Hye Jo, Seongyeong Rhie, Man Yong Han, Kyu Young Chae
Received September 14, 2021  Accepted November 5, 2021  
Question: What comorbidities are increased in children with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)? Are there differences in the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CMT who received physical therapy versus those who did not?
Finding: The risk of congenital musculoskeletal deformities is increased in CMT. Children who did not receive physical therapy were at greater risk of neurodevelopmental delay.
Meaning: In CMT, musculoskeletal comorbidities should be identified and active early treatment provided.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.01417    [Epub ahead of print]
Review Article
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Received July 10, 2021  Accepted October 28, 2021  
The prevalence of Japanese pediatric hypertension is 0.9% based on proper measurement protocols. Hypertensive children tend to be hypertensive adults. Pediatric essential hypertension is characterized by an absence of symptoms, obesity, a family history of hypertension, and a low birth weight. The most common causes of pediatric secondary hypertension are renal parenchymal and renovascular diseases. Important factors controlling pediatric hypertension include healthy lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00920    [Epub ahead of print]
Big data analysis and artificial intelligence in epilepsy – common data model analysis and machine learning-based seizure detection and forecasting
Yoon Gi Chung, Yonghoon Jeon, Sooyoung Yoo, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang
Received May 31, 2021  Accepted October 27, 2021  
· Big data analysis, such as common data model and artificial intelligence, can solve relevant questions and improve clinical care.
· Recent deep learning studies achieved 0.887–0.996 areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for automated interictal epileptiform discharge detection.
· Recent deep learning studies achieved 62.3%–99.0% accuracy for interictal-ictal classification in seizure detection and 75.0%– 87.8% sensitivity with a 0.06–0.21/hr false positive rate in seizure forecasting.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00766    [Epub ahead of print]
Original Article
Effects of probiotics combined with dietary and lifestyle modification on clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized clinical trial
Thushara Rodrigo, Samaranayake Dulani, Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Arjuna P. De Silva, Jerad Fernando, H. Janaka De Silva, Jayasekera , V. Pujitha Wickramasinghe
Received June 4, 2021  Accepted October 23, 2021  
Question: Could probiotics be used as a therapeutic modality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?
Finding: There seem no added advantages over lifestyle modifications compared to Probiotics.
Meaning: There does not seem to be an advantage of probiotics over lifestyle modifications in improving obesity-associated metabolic derangement in children.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00787    [Epub ahead of print]
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