Article 65(9); Sep 2022
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Breastfeeding and vitamin D
Ju Sun Heo, Young Min Ahn, Ai-Rhan Ellen Kim, Son Moon Shin; for the Korean Society of Breastfeeding Medicine
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):418-429.   Published online December 14, 2021
∙ Exclusively breastfed infants are at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency associated with hypocalcemia, rickets, and various health outcomes.
∙ The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants differs vastly between studies and nations at 0.6%–91.1%.
∙ The vitamin D content of breast milk does not meet the requirements of exclusively breastfed infants.
∙ Most international guidelines recommend that breastfed infants be supplemented with 400 IU/day of vitamin D during the first year of life.
∙ Vitamin D intake (milk+supplements) of 800 IU/day can be considered in preterm infants along with biochemical monitoring.
Cardiology
Diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease: recent guidelines and z score systems
Sung Hye Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):430-438.   Published online December 17, 2021
∙ Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in the developed countries, and Korea has the second-highest incidence in the world.
∙ Early diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative to prevent coronary complication, and evaluation of coronary artery abnormalities is fundamental.
∙ Recent guidelines have adapted z score system for the diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease.
∙ Applying z score in diagnosis of coronary abnormalities has better correlation with clinical outcomes than absolute cutoff values.
∙ Calculated z scores could be different according to the z score formula, which might influence the treatment plan.
Gastroenterology
Factors influencing development of the infant microbiota: from prenatal period to early infancy
Sujin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):439-447.   Published online December 23, 2021
∙ Microbial colonization primarily occurs after birth but there may be some colonization in utero, although this remains highly controversial.
∙ Maternal factors during pregnancy affect the infant microbiota: diet, weight, gestational weight gain, and antibiotic usage.
∙ Microbes are passed from mother-to-infant during and after birth. Delivery mode, breastfeeding, early life antibiotic, and proton pump inhibitor treatment have the largest effects on microbial composition in early life.
∙ The early life gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of the immune system and metabolism.
Editorial
Cardiology
Characteristics of z score systems for diagnosing coronary abnormalities in Kawasaki disease
Gyeong-Hee Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):448-449.   Published online March 14, 2022
Because of the various body sizes of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), coronary artery diameter requires normalization to the body surface area as a z score.
In updated guidelines, coronary artery abnormalities are important criteria in the diagnosis of KD, and z score systems have been accepted to define coronary artery abnormalities.
However, the z score formula should be selected carefully because each yields different results.
Endocrinology
Bisphenol A leaching from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food causes potential health issues
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):450-452.   Published online July 25, 2022
Can bisphenol A (BPA) leach out from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food? BPA and other toxic materials can leach out from baby bottles and increase the risk of various health problems, including endocrine disturbances. Although the use of BPA in baby bottles has been banned, many developing countries still use it, which can cause health issues. Thus, public awareness of this issue is required.
Original Article
Oncology
Treatment outcomes of high-dose chemotherapy plus stem cell rescue in high-risk neuroblastoma patients in Thailand
Kunanya Suwannaying, Piti Techavichit, Patcharee Komvilaisak, Napat Laoaroon, Nattee Narkbunnam, Kleebsabai Sanpakit, Kanhatai Chiengthong, Thirachit Chotsampancharoen, Lalita Sathitsamitphong, Chalongpon Santong, Panya Seksarn, Suradej Hongeng, Surapon Wiangnon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):453-458.   Published online May 24, 2022
Question: This study aimed to elucidate the outcomes of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue without immunotherapy.
Finding: The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 45.1% and 40.4%, respectively.
Meaning: High-dose chemotherapy plus stem cell rescue followed by cis-retinoic acid for 12 months is well tolerated and could improve survival in patients with HR-NB in limited resource settings.
Other
Plastic bottle feeding produces changes in biochemical parameters in human infants – A pilot study
Mahendra K. Pant, Abul. H. Ahmad, Manisha Naithani, Jayanti Pant
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):459-465.   Published online May 19, 2022
Question: Plastic feeding bottles are used commonly to feed infants who cannot be breastfeed. Does plastic bottle feeding produce biochemical changes in infants?
Finding: The plastic bottles leach out endocrine disruptors and affects bodily functions in terms of biochemical alterations like increased blood urea, raised creatine-kinase–MB levels, and altered lipid profile in infants exposed to bottle feeding.
Meaning: Plastic bottles feeding alters bodily functions in infants.
Letter to the Editor
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
The influence of parental eating behaviors, child-feeding practices, and infants’ temperaments upon infants’ eating behaviors
Goh Woon Lim, Kyoung Min Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):466-468.   Published online June 27, 2022
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