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Editorial
Endocrinology
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents
Hae Sang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):90-91.   Published online January 24, 2024
· With the increase in childhood obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a concern in recent years.
· NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance.
· Lifestyle modifications are the mainstay treatment for NAFLD.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Clinical considerations and practical issues of kidney complications in children after COVID-19 infection or vaccination
Jiwon Jung, Joo Hoon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):35-36.   Published online November 17, 2023
· The proper monitoring for and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced acute kidney injury, which is common in critically ill children, are recommended.
· Glomerulopathy associated with COVID-19 or its vaccination has been reported, and the overall clinical course is similar to that of non-COVID-19-associated diseases.
· Additional COVID-19 vaccinations are recommended; however, careful and individualized decisions should be made in patients with COVID-19- or vaccination-associated glomerulopathy.
Infection
COVID-19 infection and vaccination among children
Amnuay Kleebayoon, Viroj Wiwanitkit
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):531-532.   Published online August 30, 2023
· Coronavirus disease 2019 (OVID-19) infection and immunization have been linked with kidney problems; however, causality has not been proven.
· Concern about confounders is usually needed.
· Correspondence about a published article on the COVID-19 vaccine
Gastroenterology
Noninvasive and simple, but accurate? Meta-analysis of evidence-based point-of-care ultrasound for assessing dehydration in children
Jin-Hee Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):475-476.   Published online July 11, 2023
· Point-of-care ultrasound imaging, including measurement of the inferior vena cava/aorta ratio, is powerful for evaluating the hemodynamic status of pediatric patients.
· Owing to the limited feasibility of randomized clinical trials and insufficient data in children, imaging tools require validation.
· Objective validity meta-analyses of imaging studies can affect clinical decision-making and serve as a cornerstone for evidence-based practice in pediatrics.
Immunology
Systemic autoinflammatory disorders: autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders
Young Dae Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(10):439-440.   Published online July 4, 2023
· Systemic autoinflammatory disorders (SAIDs) typically have an early onset in life, and may have close relatives may have similar disease.
· SAIDs should be suspected in any patient, especially children, who experience persistent or recurrent inflammatory episodes that fail to fit the pattern of other established diseases.
· Advancements in the understanding of autoinflammation will provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic options for SAIDs patients.
Cardiology
Arrhythmias in pediatric patients with COVID-19
Ji-Eun Ban
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(8):348-349.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Childrens with coronavirus disease 2019 less commonly display life-threatening arrhythmias, including premature atrial or ventricular beats, or conduction disturbances such as first-degree atrioventricular blocks.
· Life-threatening arrhythmias (e.g., nonsustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, complete atrioventricular block) occur in children with sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection suffering from myocarditis or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).
· Monitoring clinical status and assessing and managing arrhythmias are crucial in MIS-C.
Gastroenterology
Gut microbiota’s impact on obesity
Sujin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(7):294-295.   Published online June 14, 2023
· An imbalance of the gut microbiota with a relative increase in Firmicutes versus Bacteroidetes is associated with the pathogenesis of obesity.
· Dysbiosis is associated with microbial genes associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and increased colonic SCFA levels. SCFAs have also been shown to regulate appetite and satiety hormones, which can affect food intake and energy balance.
· A dietary high-fat intake is reportedly associated with increased plasma lipopolysaccharide. Altered Toll-like receptor-4 signaling leads to propagating the cascade of further inflammation and promoting insulin resistance.
Recent advances in epigenetic mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal allergic disorders
Eell Ryoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(6):250-251.   Published online May 19, 2023
· Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in rapidly increasing food allergy.
· There is still no definitive way to diagnose food allergy.
· Early introduction of peanuts, eggs, and cow’s milk reduces food allergy incidence.
· Administration of probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium bifidum can partially reduce the occurrence of allergic symptoms.
Infection
Impact and role of vitamins as immunonutrition in children during COVID-19 pandemic
Yoo Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(5):212-214.   Published online April 18, 2023
· Vitamins have effector mechanisms in the innate and adaptive immune systems and potential roles in preventing and reducing the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
· Vitamins may be immunonutrients in the treatment of COVID-19 infections and prevention of patient deterioration due to critical illness, thus demonstrating the significance of a nutritious, well-balanced diet.
Neurology
Understanding the usefulness of electroencephalography source localization
Bo Lyun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(5):210-211.   Published online April 18, 2023
· Electroencephalography (EEG) records brain activity with high temporal resolution.
· EEG source localization, combined with other functional or structural imaging methods, provides information about brain network and connectivity in clinical neuroscience.
· EEG source localization identifies brain location from electrical current sources in several neuropsychiatric diseases such as epilepsy, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders.
Other
Advancing pediatric health: the multifaceted scope of Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
Jin Hee Oh, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(4):171-172.   Published online March 29, 2023
Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) is a journal that specializes in pediatric research topics. It covers a wide range of research areas, including basic research, translational research, and research related to improving pediatric health and diseases. CEP also focuses on the coordination of societal structures and processes that orchestrate pediatric health and disease throughout society, and the parallel relationship between regional characteristics and globalization. The journal intends to continue promoting pediatric health through relentless efforts and the discovery of new research areas.
Gastroenterology
Is there a link between social media usage and functional gastrointestinal disorders in children?
Hae Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(4):169-170.   Published online March 23, 2023
Social media use has potential benefits and risks, including links to adverse health problems in children such as functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Screen time control, emotional support, and parental guidance can help children navigate social media safely and reduce the risk of developing FGIDs.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Optimal hemodialysis treatment for pediatric kidney failure patients
Yo Han Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(3):125-126.   Published online February 15, 2023
· Although the basic concept of hemodialysis (HD) is similar in adults and children, specific factors must be considered in the latter, including the small dialyzer and circuit, difficult vascular access, and frequent complications.
· HD-associated complications include catheter-related problems, hemodynamic instability, and neurodevelopmental and cognitive dysfunction.
· Pediatric HD is challenging, and steady efforts are needed to perform it safely and reduce its complications, thereby improving clinical outcomes.
Neurology
Lumbar puncture or not: when does febrile seizure require a neurodiagnostic evaluation?
Seung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):68-69.   Published online December 9, 2022
· A neurodiagnostic evaluation (lumbar puncture, blood tests, electroencephalography, and neuroimaging) is not indicated in most patients with simple febrile seizures.
· A lumbar puncture is indicated when a central nervous system infection is suspected in any patient with febrile seizures.
· Blood tests (glucose, electrolytes, and complete blood count) are indicated in patients with persistent seizure after benzodiazepine treatment, prolonged loss of consciousness, poor general condition, or signs of dehydration.
Emergency Medicine
Current diagnosis and image-guided reduction for intussusception in children: teamwork approach
Ji-Hyun Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):66-67.   Published online September 1, 2022
· The successful and safe enema reduction of intussusception depends primarily on the experience and preference of the radiologists and the availability of resources.
· The establishment of a standardized manual or protocol for reduction and pre-reduction treatment of intussusception, along with the collaboration of pediatricians, radiologists, and surgeons, is expected to improve the treatment success rate.
Pulmonology
Wheezing in infants and preschoolers: phenotypes and treatment options
Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):26-27.   Published online December 6, 2022
· Knowing who will develop into asthma or who will not is important to impose proper treatment and early intervention in a child with the first episode of wheezing.
· Phenotypes of severe bronchiolitis in less than 2-year-old children with first episode of wheezing were suggested for different treatment options
· RV-induced and/or atopy-associated severe wheezing in preschool children may benefit from early intervention of asthma treatment.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Does cord blood cortisol have a mediating effect on maternal prepregnancy body mass index and birth weight?
Gyu Hong Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):24-25.   Published online November 30, 2022
· A high prepregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) is associated with large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia, whereas a low pre-BMI is associated with small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW).
· The identification of the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the effect of pre-BMI and maternal gestational weight gain on birth weight could reduce the frequency of LGA, macrosomia, SGA, or LBW through maternal diet optimization.
Pulmonology
Community-acquired pneumonia in Korean children: time to read between the lines
Dong In Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):22-23.   Published online November 10, 2022
· Various studies have reported the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Korean children
· Factors other than etiology are equally important to a compre hensive understanding of CAP
· Knowledge from archived reports is no longer directly applicable to the current CAP and requires careful modification
Allergy
Clinical considerations and practical issues of allergic diseases in COVID-19 era
Sungsu Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):587-588.   Published online November 29, 2022
The risk of sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes is not elevated in patients with the type 2 phenotype and well-controlled asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids, intranasal corticosteroids, and topical steroids can be safely used in COVID-19 patients. Biologics can be safely used by patients with allergic diseases without concern about antibody responses.
Gastroenterology
Ability of probiotics to reduce functional abdominal pain in children
Ji Sook Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):585-586.   Published online October 6, 2022
· The ability of probiotics to relieve pain caused by functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) in children is unclear.
· Lactobacillus reuteri may effectively reduce pain caused by childhood FAPD.
· Since the routine use of probiotics cannot be recommended due to a lack of clinical evidence, research into probiotic mixtures or symbiotics remains necessary.
Cardiology
Recent research trends in Kawasaki disease-related infection
Hyang-Ok Woo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):538-539.   Published online July 22, 2022
The incidence of Kawasaki disease has reportedly decreased since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine. However, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children has reportedly occurred more frequently in areas where COVID-19 was prevalent than in previous years. Research into the etiology of childhood and adolescent systemic vasculitis in infection-related immune responses during the COVID-19 pandemic has increased accordingly.
Neurology
Increasing our understanding of rotavirus-induced central nervous system manifestations
Jon Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):536-537.   Published online May 6, 2022
· Diverse clinicoradiological features of central nervous system (CNS) complications in rotavirus infection can be identified with the rapid and wide use of various brain magnetic resonance imaging protocols.
· An increased understanding of the various pathophysiological mechanisms of rotavirus-induced CNS manifestations will enable precise management in the future.
Neurobehavior
Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on children’s health
Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):498-499.   Published online September 16, 2022
· Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had an enormous impact on mental health and other aspects of children’s health.
· The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents have increased in the COVID-19 era.
· Cooperation among parents, guardians, academic societies, and the government is needed to maintain the mental health of children and adolescents.
Other
Three-dimensional printing technolgy in orthopedic oncology
Yongsung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):496-497.   Published online May 11, 2022
Orthopedic oncology is one of the most active fields in applying 3-dimensional printing technology from preoperative planning to intraoperative procedures such as accurate resection of tumors and reconstruction of huge bone defects.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Hypertension in adulthood is programmed during the perinatal period
Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):494-495.   Published online August 12, 2022
∙ Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth can be significant risk factors for the development of adult hypertension.
∙ Several perinatal factors of hypertension are related to IUGR, including renal, vascular, and rapid catch-up growth.
Endocrinology
Bisphenol A leaching from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food causes potential health issues
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):450-452.   Published online July 25, 2022
Can bisphenol A (BPA) leach out from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food? BPA and other toxic materials can leach out from baby bottles and increase the risk of various health problems, including endocrine disturbances. Although the use of BPA in baby bottles has been banned, many developing countries still use it, which can cause health issues. Thus, public awareness of this issue is required.
Cardiology
Characteristics of z score systems for diagnosing coronary abnormalities in Kawasaki disease
Gyeong-Hee Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):448-449.   Published online March 14, 2022
Because of the various body sizes of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), coronary artery diameter requires normalization to the body surface area as a z score.
In updated guidelines, coronary artery abnormalities are important criteria in the diagnosis of KD, and z score systems have been accepted to define coronary artery abnormalities.
However, the z score formula should be selected carefully because each yields different results.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Factors to consider before implementing telemedicine protocols to manage neonatal jaundice
Heui Seung Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):403-404.   Published online April 12, 2022
In the rapidly changing environmental situation during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, neonatal centers have developed telemedicine systems with extended coverage for neonatal monitoring and high-risk follow-up programs including neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. At this point, electronic health technology and noncontact medical system increase the effectiveness of rather than replacing the face-to-face visit and the opinions of experienced neonatologists.
Pulmonology
Now lung ultrasound has been established as a fundamental examination in pediatric respiratory diseases
Kyunghoon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):401-402.   Published online July 13, 2022
· Several studies demonstrated the usefulness of lung ultrasound in pediatric respiratory diseases including coronavirus disease 2019.
· Knowledge of lung ultrasound is increasing, and lung ultrasound has been established as a fundamental diagnostic examination for pediatric respiratory diseases.
Cardiology
Early echocardiographic screening for subclinical myocardial dysfunction in children and adolescents with dyslipidemia: why and when?
Hyun Gyung Lee, Hwa Jin Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):398-400.   Published online March 7, 2022
Dyslipidemia contributes to early atherosclerosis, premature cardiovascular disease, and subclinical ventricular dysfunction in children. This paper highlights the need for echocardiographic evaluation for impaired diastolic function of both ventricles and narrowing of the aortic valve and sinus of Valsalva. Therefore, early echocardiographic screening of children with primary hyperlipidemia should be considered.
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