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"Most viewed" Articles are from the articles published in 2020 during the last six month.

Review Article
Oncology
Update on infantile hemangioma   (9,314 times)
Hye Lim Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):559-572.   Published online May 26, 2021
· Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular tumors, occurring in 5%–10% of infants.
· IHs are characteristically not present at birth but are usually diagnosed at 1–4 weeks of age, rapidly proliferate until 5 months of age, and then spontaneously involute.
· High-risk IHs (10%) require early treatment from 1 month of age.
· Oral propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, is the first-line treatment for IHs.
Nutrition
Components of human breast milk: from macronutrient to microbiome and microRNA   (6,308 times)
Su Yeong Kim, Dae Yong Yi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):301-309.   Published online March 23, 2020
Human breast milk (HBM) is essential for the infant’s growth and development right after birth and is an irreplaceable source of nutrition for early human survival. Various infant formulas have many similarities to HBM in many components, but there is no perfect substitute for HBM. Recently, various breast milk components and their roles have been studied according to the development...
Infection
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19)   (6,016 times)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):119-124.   Published online April 2, 2020
A cluster of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19...
Original Article
Allergy
Ten-year trends and prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population, 2008–2017   (5,348 times)
Jihyun Ha, Seung Won Lee, Dong Keon Yon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):278-283.   Published online January 29, 2020
Background: Major questions remain regarding the agestratified trends of allergic diseases and asthma in Korea.
Purpose: To identify the estimated recent prevalence and 10- year trends in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population from 2008 to 2017. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional survey (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) over 10 years (2008–2017) examined representative samples of the...
Review Article
Allergy
Montelukast use over the past 20 years: monitoring of its effects and safety issues   (4,955 times)
Yong Ju Lee, Chang-Keun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):376-381.   Published online February 5, 2020
Although the efficacy of montelukast is inferior to that of ICS, both physicians and parents prefer montelukast to ICSs.
EDN may be a useful biomarker for the treatment and monitoring of preschool children with asthma.
The US FDA requires boxed warning about serious neuropsychiatric events of montelukast, therefore, physicians should consider the benefits and risks of montelukast before prescribing it.
Infection
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children   (4,931 times)
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Updates on the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and consideration in children   (4,755 times)
Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Hwa Choi, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):328-338.   Published online June 21, 2021
· The number of coronavirus disease 2019 cases has exponentially increased worldwide, and children ≤19 years old account for 11.0% of all confirmed cases.
· mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, and adenoviral vector vaccines, AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S, authorized for emergency use in the Emergency Use Listing of the World Health Organization are reviewed.
· Clinical trials of these vaccines have shown that they are safe and serious adverse reactions are rarely observed.
Neurology
Health effects of electromagnetic fields on children   (4,725 times)
Jin-Hwa Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):422-428.   Published online May 26, 2020
· The nervous systems of children are more vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic waves than adults.
· The exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among children should be minimized.
· According to International Agency for Research on Cancer EMFs are possibly carcinogenic, it should not be overlooked or interpreted with bias.
Other
Comparison of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for undescended testis   (4,031 times)
Jaeho Shin, Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):415-421.   Published online March 23, 2020
Primary caregivers should consider surgical specialist referral of patients with undescended testis if no descent occurs by 6 months, undescended testis is newly diagnosed after 6 months of age, or testicular torsion is suspected. Orchiopexy is recommended between 6 and 18 months at the latest. The original location of the testes and the age at orchiopexy are predictive factors for infertility and malignancy later in life.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Comparison of minimally invasive surfactant therapy with intubation surfactant administration and extubation for treating preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized clinical trial   (3,840 times)
Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Behnaz Basiri, Maryam Shokouhi, Sajad Ghahremani, Ali Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):188-193.   Published online July 28, 2021
Question: Are the short-term outcomes of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) relatively superior to those of INtubation, SURfactant administration, and Extubation (INSURE) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)?
Finding: MIST could be an appropriate substitution for INSURE in preterm infants with RDS since it reduced hospitalization time and number of side effects.
Meaning: MIST is recommended for surfactant administration for its proven advantages over the INSURE technique.
Review Article
Pulmonology
High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in children: a clinical review   (3,608 times)
Ji-Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):3-7.   Published online October 28, 2019
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a relatively safe and effective noninvasive ventilation method that was recently accepted as a treatment option for acute respiratory support before endotracheal intubation or invasive ventilation. The action mechanism of HFNC includes a decrease in nasopharyngeal resistance, washout of dead space, reduction in inflow of ambient air, and an increase in airway pressure. In preterm...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants   (3,408 times)
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Infection
The COVID-19 pandemic: an unprecedented tragedy in the battle against childhood obesity   (3,340 times)
Maximilian Andreas Storz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):477-482.   Published online November 5, 2020
Large-scale quarantine and home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will impose new and unfamiliar stressors on children, thereby worsening the childhood obesity epidemic. Physical, nutritional, and psychosocial factors that promote obesity in children during this special situation complementarily contribute to an unprecedented obesogenic environment. Involved stakeholders, including governments, schools, and families, must make all efforts to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on childhood obesity.
Neurology
Genetic tests by next-generation sequencing in children with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability   (3,152 times)
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):195-202.   Published online November 4, 2019
Developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techogies have assisted in clarifying the diagnosis and treatment of developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) via molecular genetic testing. Advances in DNA sequencing technology have not only allowed the evolution of targeted panels but also, and more currently enabled genome-wide analyses to progress from research era to clinical practice. Broad acceptance of accuracy- guided targeted gene...
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Genetics and Metabolism
Global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data: systematic review and meta-analysis   (3,127 times)
Hamid Reza Shoraka, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Zohre Bagherinezhad, Farzaneh Zolala
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):34-43.   Published online February 6, 2020
Question: What is the global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data?
Finding: The overall worldwide prevalence of the disease is 6.002 per 100,000 neonates. The highest prevalence (38.13) was reported in Turkey, while the lowest (0.3) in Thailand.
Meaning: This difference in the prevalence may be due to differences in the number of consanguineous marriages among the different regions, phenylalanine cutoff points, and sample sizes.
Review Article
Allergy
Pollen-food allergy syndrome in children   (3,096 times)
You Hoon Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):463-468.   Published online May 14, 2020
The prevalence of pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) in Korean children with pollen allergy was recently reported to be 42.7%. PFAS can cause a wide range of symptoms from mild allergy to severe anaphylaxis depending on the nature of food allergens that share the epitopes with pollen. Cases of anaphylaxis caused by PFAS have recently increased. Treatments for PFAS should be individualized for patients according to the severity of symptoms.
Editorial
General Pediatrics
Why should we be concerned about early menarche?   (3,088 times)
Hae Sang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):26-27.   Published online July 13, 2020
· Early menarche is associated with several health problems in later life.
· Early menarche can be caused by environmental factors such as increased subcutaneous fat, a high body mass index, and sugar-sweetened beverages as well as genetic factors.
· Health education can prevent early menarche by aiming to reduce the consumption of fructose, high concentrations of which are present in sugar-sweetened beverages.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Global relationship between parent and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis   (2,988 times)
Ju Suk Lee, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):35-46.   Published online March 29, 2021
Question: Are parent and child obesity correlated worldwide?
Finding: Overweight and obese status of parents and children were significantly associated worldwide. The association between parent and child obesity was stronger in Asia than in Europe and the Middle East, and in high-income than in middle- and low-income countries.
Meaning: Childhood obesity is highly influenced by parental weight status, indicating that parents could play an important role in its prevention.
Clinical Note
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
First episode of nephrotic syndrome with acute abdominal pain   (2,973 times)
Samridhi Goyal, Rachita Singh Dhull, Bobbity Deepthi, Abhijeet Saha
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):411-414.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: What are the likely causes of pain abdomen in Nephrotic syndrome?
Finding: Severe hypovolemia leading to mesenteric ischemia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, gastroenteritis, adverse effect of corticosteroids leading to gastritis, mesenteric ischemia due to thromboembolism, acute appendicitis, intussusception due to severe gut wall oedema and rarely Psoas abscess.
Meaning: Clinical suspicion and careful investigation is warranted to diagnose rare cause of pain abdomen like Psoas abscess.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Growth patterns of preterm infants in Korea   (2,931 times)
Joohee Lim, So Jin Yoon, Soon Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):1-9.   Published online July 8, 2021
∙ The growth of preterm infants is a main focus of neonatology.
∙ Preterm infants in Korea, especially those with a very low birth weight, achieve retarded growth.
∙ Careful growth monitoring and early intervention will contribute to better development outcomes and quality of life for preterm infants and improve public health.
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