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"Most viewed" Articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last six month.

Original Article
Pulmonology
Oligohydramnios affects pulmonary functional/structural abnormalities in school-aged children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia   (58,830 times)
Jeong Eun Shin, Soon Min Lee, Mi-Jung Lee, Jungho Han, Joohee Lim, Haerin Jang, Ho Seon Eun, Min Soo Park, Soo Yeon Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Ji Ye Jung, Kyung Won Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(5):257-266.   Published online April 16, 2024
Question: Is bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) associated with functional/structural abnormalities later in life?
Finding: School-aged children with severe BPD had abnormalities on pulmonary function tests and lung computed tomography despite no subjective respiratory symptoms; however, only prenatal oligohydramnios and prolonged ventilator use were associated with abnormal lung function.
Meaning: Long-term monitoring of preterm infants’ lung health is essential, especially for those with prenatal oligohydramnios or prolonged ventilator use.
Review Article
Allergy
Action-plan and as-needed therapy in allergic rhinitis   (52,652 times)
Hyeon-Jong Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(6):267-273.   Published online May 21, 2024
· The guidelines may not work in the real world.
· An action-plan reflecting patient’s severity and variable of symptoms, values and preferences as well as the benefits and harms of treatment, may be a useful alternative.
· The action plan and as-needed therapy must include the following elements: when, what, how, and why.
· Action plan and as-needed therapy can help patients manage their symptoms more effectively.
Original Article
Nutrition
Parental support and exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months in West Java, Indonesia: a mixed-methods approach   (47,797 times)
Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika, Fadila Wirawan, Wawan Gunawan, Primasti Nuryandari Putri, Nurul Husna Mohd Shukri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(7):358-367.   Published online June 21, 2024
Question: Does paternal support affect exclusive breastfeeding failure?
Finding: Exclusive breastfeeding failure by 3 months was affected by paternal support.
Meaning: Fathers should be included in breastfeeding education and antenatal care.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Oral administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuates intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis   (33,624 times)
Yeong Seok Lee, Yong Hoon Jun, Juyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(3):152-160.   Published online February 19, 2024
Question: What is the optimal dose of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for treating necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and is orally administered BM-MSC effective?
Findings: High (1×106 cells) or multiple BM-MSC doses showed similar effects as low (1×105 cells) doses of intraperitoneally administered BM-MSCs. Furthermore, orally administered BM-MSCs were as effective as intraperitoneally administered BM-MSCs.
Meaning: Orally administered low-dose BM-MSCs are a potential treatment for NEC.
Neurology
Changes in frequency of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis and their viral causes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a single-center study   (33,601 times)
Hyejin Na, Sanghoon Lee, Seo Hee Kim, Young Ok Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(4):213-220.   Published online March 19, 2024
Question: Did coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affect the frequency, seasonal variation, or virus type of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG)?
Findings: We compared 41 cases of CwG before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. After March 2020, frequency did not change significantly (18 patients vs. 23 patients), seasonal variation was lost, and number of cases of enteric adenovirus-associated CwG increased (1 cases vs. 7 cases).
Meaning: The COVID-19 pandemic affected CwG.
Review Article
Other
Acetaminophen causes neurodevelopmental injury in susceptible babies and children: no valid rationale for controversy   (5,682 times)
Lisa Zhao, John P. Jones, Lauren G. Anderson, Zacharoula Konsoula, Cynthia D. Nevison, Kathryn J. Reissner, William Parker
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(3):126-139.   Published online June 14, 2023
Despite worldwide acceptance of acetaminophen (paracetamol) in pediatric medicine, careful examination reveals no valid objections to the conclusion that early exposure to acetaminophen causes neurodevelopmental injury in susceptible babies and children. Nevertheless, debate that early exposure to acetaminophen causes neurodevelopmental injury has centered around the prenatal period, evidence of which is relatively limited compared to that in the postnatal period, which is the time of greatest absolute and relative risk.
Infection
Global varicella vaccination programs   (5,478 times)
Young Hwa Lee, Young June Choe, Jia Lee, Eunseong Kim, Jae Young Lee, Kwan Hong, Yoonsun Yoon, Yun-Kyung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):555-562.   Published online November 2, 2022
It is important to evaluate its effectiveness at the national level and to determine the varicella vaccine schedule based on the evidence generated through the studies.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies   (4,661 times)
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):115-126.   Published online October 12, 2021
There have been global tri-phasic epidemic periods of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In recent years, its incidence has reportedly been 10%–40% depending on country and study population. Current treatment strategies for ROP include laser photocoagulation, surgical treatment, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the role of which has drawn attention in recent years.
Infection
Pathogenetic and etiologic considerations of febrile seizures   (4,612 times)
Ji Yoon Han, Seung Beom Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):46-53.   Published online January 13, 2023
· Inflammatory responses accompanying fever increase neuronal excitability in the central nervous system, which in turn provokes seizures.
· Fever in children with febrile seizures is usually caused by common respiratory viruses, the distributions of which match those of seasonal community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
· Several genetic variations in ion channels seem associated with neuronal hyperexcitability in children with febrile seizures.
Endocrinology
Genetic factors in precocious puberty   (4,473 times)
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):172-181.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Mutations in the kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) genes are associated with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).
· A few genes related to pubertal onset have been implicated in ICPP.
· Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and noncoding ribonucleic acids may be related to ICPP
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Global relationship between parent and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis   (4,364 times)
Ju Suk Lee, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):35-46.   Published online March 29, 2021
Question: Are parent and child obesity correlated worldwide?
Finding: Overweight and obese status of parents and children were significantly associated worldwide. The association between parent and child obesity was stronger in Asia than in Europe and the Middle East, and in high-income than in middle- and low-income countries.
Meaning: Childhood obesity is highly influenced by parental weight status, indicating that parents could play an important role in its prevention.
Review Article
Cardiology
Implication of microRNA as a potential biomarker of myocarditis   (4,060 times)
Jin-Hee Oh, Gi Beom Kim, Heeyoung Seok
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):230-238.   Published online March 2, 2022
· Myocarditis was recently examined quantitatively as inflammation of the heart muscle based on endomyocardial biopsy, and its noninvasive diagnosis remains unsatisfactory.
· Additionally, numerous miRNAs (miR-155, miR-146b, miR-590, miR-221, miR-222, etc.) coupled with inflammation or viral activation have been examined in myocarditis patients or mouse models.
· The recent identification of mmu-miR-721 (has-miR-Chr8: 96), a myocarditis-specific microRNA, demonstrated its potential as an acute myocarditis biomarker.
Neurology
Neonatal seizures: diagnostic updates based on new definition and classification   (4,003 times)
Eun-Hee Kim, Jeongmin Shin, Byoung Kook Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):387-397.   Published online April 4, 2022
· Neonatal seizures are often electrographic-only seizures without clinical signs; therefore, the identification of electrical seizure activity on electroencephalography is the gold standard for diagnosis.
· Clinical signs of neonatal seizures are divided into motor or nonmotor seizures, and motor seizures are mostly focal or multifocal.
· Most neonatal seizures are caused by acute symptomatic etiologies, but in cases of intractable seizures, structural, genetic, or metabolic etiologies should be investigated.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents   (3,930 times)
Hae Sang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):90-91.   Published online January 24, 2024
· With the increase in childhood obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a concern in recent years.
· NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance.
· Lifestyle modifications are the mainstay treatment for NAFLD.
Review Article
Infection
Community-acquired pneumonia in children: updated perspectives on its etiology, diagnosis, and treatment   (3,883 times)
Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):80-89.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Most commonly confirmed causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children are Mycoplasma pneumoniae (8%–40%) and respiratory syncytial virus (15%–20%).
· Pyogenic bacteria, most commonly Streptococcus pneumoniae (40%–50%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (10%–25%), are detected in 2%–5% of children hospitalized with CAP.
· CAP should be diagnosed conservatively according to clinical and radiological criteria.
· The etiology should be identified via appropriate test result interpretation.
Pulmonology
Epidemiology and surveillance implications of community-acquired pneumonia in children   (3,845 times)
Eui Jeong Roh, Jung Yeon Shim, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):563-573.   Published online October 17, 2022
The identification of the causative pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia and appropriate treatment and prevention can reduce mortality and the socioeconomic burden by reducing the medical expenses. The world has been in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic since 2020, and there is always a risk of continuous emergence and epidemic of new respiratory infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to sustain a monitoring system for respiratory infectious diseases including pneumonia.
Endocrinology
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan   (3,673 times)
Toru Kikuchi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):283-290.   Published online November 26, 2021
The prevalence of Japanese pediatric hypertension is 0.9% based on proper measurement protocols. Hypertensive children tend to be hypertensive adults. Pediatric essential hypertension is characterized by an absence of symptoms, obesity, a family history of hypertension, and a low birth weight. The most common causes of pediatric secondary hypertension are renal parenchymal and renovascular diseases. Important factors controlling pediatric hypertension include healthy lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy.
Original Article
Nutrition
Effect of probiotics plus zinc supplementation on clinical outcomes of infants and children with acute infectious diarrhea: a randomized controlled trial   (3,652 times)
Deldar Morad Abdulah, Saad Jbraeil Sulaiman, Zaid Waad Ahmed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(4):203-212.   Published online February 19, 2024
Question: Does zinc supplementation along with probiotics affect disease severity or clinical outcomes of children with acute diarrhea?
Findings: This study indicated that zinc supplementation and probiotics had no effect on clinical improvement or disease severity among pediatric patients with acute diarrhea.
Meaning: Children who received probiotics plus zinc recovered faster than those who received probiotics only.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Bisphenol A leaching from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food causes potential health issues   (3,557 times)
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):450-452.   Published online July 25, 2022
Can bisphenol A (BPA) leach out from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food? BPA and other toxic materials can leach out from baby bottles and increase the risk of various health problems, including endocrine disturbances. Although the use of BPA in baby bottles has been banned, many developing countries still use it, which can cause health issues. Thus, public awareness of this issue is required.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Gross motor dysfunction and balance impairments in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a systematic review   (3,547 times)
Preyal D. Jain, Akshatha Nayak, Shreekanth D. Karnad, Kaiorisa N. Doctor
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):142-149.   Published online June 11, 2021
Question: What are the primary motor and balance dysfunctions in children with Down syndrome?
Finding: These individuals have gross delays, altered balance, and inefficient compensatory mechanisms.
Meaning: Neuromuscular and musculoskeletal impairments due to the chromosomal abnormality lead to developmental delay. These children also exhibit poor balance with greater instability and inefficient compensatory mechanisms including altered center of pressure displacement and trunk stiffening that predisposes them to falls.
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Blood pressure measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices   (3,547 times)
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):73-80.   Published online September 15, 2021
· Hypertension is defined as a blood pressure (BP) >90th (elevated) or 95th (hypertension) percentile in children by height, age, and sex and >95th percentile in neonates by age, birth weight, and sex.
· Although the oscillometric method can be used for screenings, the auscultatory method remains the gold standard. The hybrid method employs the auscultatory and electronic methods and can reduce bias.
· BP measurement mobile device applications have a potential for development.
Neurology
Update on benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis   (3,510 times)
Yeong Seok Lee, Ga Hee Lee, Young Se Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):469-475.   Published online December 27, 2021
∙ The main pathogen for benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) was previously rotavirus; however, cases associated with norovirus are increasing.
∙ CwG is characterized by clustered generalized seizures. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging show transiently abnormal findings in the acute phase that eventually normalize with progression. Its prognosis is good, and long-term treatment is unnecessary.
∙ There are many reports on the pathophysiological mechanism of CwG, which remains unclear.
Cardiology
Diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease: recent guidelines and z score systems   (3,443 times)
Sung Hye Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):430-438.   Published online December 17, 2021
∙ Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in the developed countries, and Korea has the second-highest incidence in the world.
∙ Early diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative to prevent coronary complication, and evaluation of coronary artery abnormalities is fundamental.
∙ Recent guidelines have adapted z score system for the diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease.
∙ Applying z score in diagnosis of coronary abnormalities has better correlation with clinical outcomes than absolute cutoff values.
∙ Calculated z scores could be different according to the z score formula, which might influence the treatment plan.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Neonatal hypertension: concerns within and beyond the neonatal intensive care unit   (3,246 times)
Kathleen Altemose, Janis M. Dionne
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):367-376.   Published online May 30, 2022
Some neonates, especially those who are premature, may experience hypertension while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The most common causes are prematurity-related and the hypertension usually resolves over the first 1–2 years of life. Unfortunately, the increasing population of NICU graduates is at risk for later cardiovascular and kidney disease in childhood and adulthood. This population requires careful attention to blood pressure and weight throughout their life course.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Treatment of congenital cytomegalovirus infection   (3,222 times)
Gyu Hong Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(9):384-394.   Published online December 28, 2022
· Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is among the most common causes of nongenetic sensorineural hearing loss.
· Congenital CMV is initially treated with intravenous ganciclovir for 2–6 weeks and switched to oral valganciclovir, or with oral valganciclovir for the entire 6-month period.
· Infants with congenital CMV require periodic monitoring of absolute neutrophil count, platelet count, and blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, liver function tests, audiological, ophthalmological, and developmental tests during antiviral medication.
Editorial
Allergy
Dietary restriction misconceptions and food allergy education in children with atopic dermatitis   (3,162 times)
You Hoon Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):83-84.   Published online January 27, 2022
∙ Food intake strategies for preventing food allergies have undergone major changes over the past 20 years.
∙ In children with atopic dermatitis, indiscriminate food restrictions without diagnostic testing leads to nutritional imbalance and poor growth.
∙ When determining food restrictions for pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis, an accurate food allergy diagnosis must be preceded, and continuous parental education about food intake is required.
Review Article
Other
Hearing loss in neonates and infants   (3,138 times)
Goun Choe, Su-Kyoung Park, Bong Jik Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(9):369-376.   Published online January 9, 2023
· Congenital hearing loss is common, with an approximate incidence of 1.5 per 1,000 newborns and affecting 1.2%–11% of preterm and 1.6%–13.7% of neonatal intensive care unit neonates.
· Etiologies vary, and up to 80% of cases are genetic.
· Newborn hearing screenings follow the 1-3-6 rule, and babies at high risk of hearing loss should be referred to otolaryngology for early detection and timely intervention.
Infection
Etiological and pathophysiological enigmas of severe coronavirus disease 2019, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and Kawasaki disease   (3,089 times)
Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):153-166.   Published online November 23, 2021
· Severe cases of coronavirus disease, Kawasaki disease (KD), and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) share similar findings: a protracted clinical course, multiorgan involvement, and similar activated biomarkers.
· Here we propose etiological agents in KD and MIS-C as species in the microbiota and introduce a common pathogenesis through the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.
· Early proper dose of corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin may help to reduce morbidity and mortality in these diseases.
Original Article
Neurology
Neurodevelopmental outcomes and comorbidities of children with congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation using the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children database   (3,076 times)
Og Hyang Kim, Seung Won Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Yun Hye Jo, Seongyeong Rhie, Man Yong Han, Kyu Young Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):312-319.   Published online December 9, 2021
Question: What comorbidities are increased in children with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)? Are there differences in the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CMT who received physical therapy versus those who did not?
Finding: The risk of congenital musculoskeletal deformities is increased in CMT. Children who did not receive physical therapy were at greater risk of neurodevelopmental delay.
Meaning: In CMT, musculoskeletal comorbidities should be identified and active early treatment provided.
Review Article
Neurology
Rotavirus infection-associated central nervous system complications: clinicoradiological features and potential mechanisms   (3,021 times)
Kyung Yeon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):483-493.   Published online February 7, 2022
∙ Rotavirus infection-associated central nervous system (CNS) complications are fairly common in children.
∙ Common clinicoradiological features include benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, acute encephalopathies/encephalitis, cerebellitis, and neonatal rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy.
∙ Possible mechanisms for CNS complications include direct viral invasion into the brain via several potential routes such as the blood-brain barrier and vagus nerve, and entry of various brain-damaging mediators and activated immune cells into the brain.
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