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Letter to the Editor
General Pediatrics
Vitamin B12 deficiency in anemic children before versus after age 2 years: a form of hidden hunger in India
Sahil Goel, Ruchika Bhatnagar, Anita Kumari, Brig Prem Lochan Prasad, Lahar Sahai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):116-118.   Published online January 24, 2024
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress among parents of neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Asha P. Shetty, Kurvatteppa Halemani, Alwin Issac, Latha Thimmappa, Sanjay Dhiraaj, Radha K, Prabhaker Mishra, Vijai Datta Upadhyaya
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):104-115.   Published online November 14, 2023
Question: What emotions do parents experience when their newborns are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)?
Finding: Mothers experienced more anxiety (51%), depression (31%), and stress (41%) symptoms than fathers (26%, 12%, and 22%, respectively).
Meaning: Parents often experience anxiety, stress, and depression following NICU admission. Healthcare workers are responsible for providing regular parental counseling.
Other
Virtual, augmented, and mixed reality: potential clinical and training applications in pediatrics
Suyoung Yoo, Meong Hi Son
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):92-103.   Published online May 24, 2023
· Review of articles that investigated the applications of virtual, augmented, or mixed reality in pediatric clinical settings and in the training of pediatric medical professionals was conducted.
· A total of 89 studies were retrieved, with 36 randomized controlled trials.
· In most studies, intervention using the novel technology was at least as effective or more effective than the traditional method.
· Use of virtual, augmented, and mixed reality has potential in pediatrics.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents
Hae Sang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):90-91.   Published online January 24, 2024
· With the increase in childhood obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a concern in recent years.
· NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance.
· Lifestyle modifications are the mainstay treatment for NAFLD.
Review Article
Infection
Community-acquired pneumonia in children: updated perspectives on its etiology, diagnosis, and treatment
Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):80-89.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Most commonly confirmed causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children are Mycoplasma pneumoniae (8%–40%) and respiratory syncytial virus (15%–20%).
· Pyogenic bacteria, most commonly Streptococcus pneumoniae (40%–50%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (10%–25%), are detected in 2%–5% of children hospitalized with CAP.
· CAP should be diagnosed conservatively according to clinical and radiological criteria.
· The etiology should be identified via appropriate test result interpretation.
Allergy
Moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in children: focus on systemic Th2 cytokine receptor antagonists and Janus kinase inhibitors
Jeong Hee Kim, Mona Salem Samra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):64-79.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by a strong T helper (Th)2 response, although the extents of Th22, Th17/ interleukin (IL)-23, and Th1 responses vary among disease subtypes.
· Children with moderate to severe AD may require early systemic therapy to reduce the systemic inflammation caused by increased Th2 cytokine levels.
· Dupilumab, which blocks IL-4/IL-13 receptor, has equivalent efficacy for extrinsic and intrinsic AD and a favorable safety profile in infants and children aged 6 months and older.
Gastroenterology
High-resolution anorectal manometry in children
Yogesh Waikar
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):57-63.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Anorectal manometry is safe in children.
· Defecation Dyssynergia is one of the commonest cause of chronic constipation.
· Positive Rectoanal inhibiory reflex rules out Hirschsprung's Disease
Clinical Note
Neurology
Expanding association between BICD2 variants and brain malformations and associated lissencephaly
Jaeso Cho, Haeryung Kim, Seoungbok Lee, Jihoon G Yoon, HyeJin Kim, Minhye Kim, Seoyun Jang, Woojoong Kim, Soo Yeon Kim, Jong Hee Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):54-56.   Published online December 21, 2023
Original Article
Neurology
Effectiveness of Helmet therapy for infants with moderate to severe positional plagiocephaly
Jeongho Kim, Jina Kim, Kyu Young Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):46-53.   Published online December 5, 2023
Question: Is helmet therapy effective for positional plagiocephaly? What factors influence helmet therapy efficacy for positional plagiocephaly?
Finding: Helmet therapy is effective for infants with moderate to severe positional plagiocephaly, and its effectiveness is influenced by age at treatment initiation, severity of head asymmetry, and daily duration of helmet wear.
Meaning: Pediatricians should initiate helmet therapy for positional plagiocephaly sooner, ideally before 9 months of age, to maximize treatment efficacy.
Adolescence Medicine
Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance in excess-weight Latin children
Mariano Nicolás Aleman, María Constanza Luciardi, Emilce Romina Albornoz, María Cristina Bazán, Adela Victoria Abregú
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):37-45.   Published online December 21, 2023
Question: What is the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) in excess-weight Latin children, and can proinflammatory biomarkers predict it?
Finding: IR prevalence was elevated and tumor necrosis factor- α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1, soluble CD40 ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were increased in excess-weight Latin children. However, none predicted IR status.
Meaning: These inflammatory biomarkers were unable to predict IR status. Therefore, further investigations are necessary.
Editorial
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Clinical considerations and practical issues of kidney complications in children after COVID-19 infection or vaccination
Jiwon Jung, Joo Hoon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):35-36.   Published online November 17, 2023
· The proper monitoring for and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced acute kidney injury, which is common in critically ill children, are recommended.
· Glomerulopathy associated with COVID-19 or its vaccination has been reported, and the overall clinical course is similar to that of non-COVID-19-associated diseases.
· Additional COVID-19 vaccinations are recommended; however, careful and individualized decisions should be made in patients with COVID-19- or vaccination-associated glomerulopathy.
Review Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Clinical practice guidelines for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: recent updates
Tae Hoon Eom, Young-Hoon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):26-34.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Primary pediatricians should play a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
· The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, has lowered the diagnostic threshold for older teens and adults and a comorbid diagnosis with autism is now allowed.
· The American Academy of Pediatrics had added recommendation-related comorbid conditions in its guideline and the Society of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics recently developed a complex ADHD guideline.
· The European ADHD Guideline Group recently developed a guideline for managing ADHD during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: from diagnosis to management
Eujin Park, Hee Gyung Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):17-25.   Published online June 14, 2023
· X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most common cause of hypophosphatemic rickets, affects 1/20,000 people.
· XLH is caused by a loss-of-function mutation of the PHEX gene.
· Its main pathogenesis is elevated fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) level.
· Burosumab, an FGF23 inhibitor, was developed in the early 2000s.
· Burosumab was approved in Korea in 2020 for XLH patients aged 1+ years with radiographic evidence of bone disease.
Infection
COVID-19 among infants: key clinical features and remaining controversies
Nevio Cimolai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):1-16.   Published online November 27, 2023
· Clinical studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in infants should be supported by rigorous laboratory diagnostic criteria.
· Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads to infants similarly to other viral respiratory infections.
· Among infants ≤1 year of age beyond the immediate postpartum period, COVID-19 is relatively mild, but even the low risk of severe disease requires prevention.
· Comorbidities increase infection vulnerability and complications in infants.
· Clinical and laboratory data do not sufficiently distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory viral infections.
· Coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is uncommon among infants.
· Unique infection sequelae, including multi-inflammatory syndrome in children and neonates and long COVID require further study and refinement of diagnostic criteria.
· Infection control standards applied to mother-infant dyads should be tempered by standard preventive strategies, maternal input, accommodation potential, and overall safety.
· Maternal vaccination prevents disease in early infancy.
Original Article
Gastroenterology
Risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old
Dedy Rahmat, Agus Firmansyah, Ina S. Timan, Saptawati Bardosono, Joedo Prihartono, Pramita Gayatri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):538-544.   Published online November 16, 2023
Question: What are the risk factors for prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old?
Finding: History of antibiotic use, zinc deficiency, and elevated fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were the main risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old with acute diarrhea.
Meaning: Rational antibiotic usage is necessary as well as thorough testing of serum zinc level and fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.
General Pediatrics
Virtual reality for pain reduction during intravenous injection in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Amir Mohammad Salehi, Masoud Rafiee, Mozhdeh Bashirian
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):533-537.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: This is the first meta-analysis to examine published evidence of the effectiveness of virtual reality at reducing pain during pediatric intravenous injections.
Finding: Our results suggest that virtual reality effectively reduces pain associated with intravenous injections in pediatric patients.
Meaning: These findings suggest the importance of virtual reality in decreasing the pain of intravenous injections among children.
Editorial
Infection
COVID-19 infection and vaccination among children
Amnuay Kleebayoon, Viroj Wiwanitkit
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):531-532.   Published online August 30, 2023
· Coronavirus disease 2019 (OVID-19) infection and immunization have been linked with kidney problems; however, causality has not been proven.
· Concern about confounders is usually needed.
· Correspondence about a published article on the COVID-19 vaccine
Review Article
Endocrinology
Applications of genomic research in pediatric endocrine diseases
Ja Hye Kim, Jin-Ho Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):520-530.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Recent advances in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of pediatric endocrine disorders and are now used in mainstream medical practice.
· Genome-wide association studies can increase our understanding of the biological mechanisms of disease and inform new therapeutic options.
· The identification of founder mutations leads to the efficient localization of the genes underlying Mendelian disorders.
· Next-generation sequencing technologies benefit clinical practice and research of pediatric endocrinology.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance in children
Kyungchul Song, Ho-Seong Kim, Hyun Wook Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):512-519.   Published online January 9, 2023
· The prevalence of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increased from 8.2% in 2009 to 12.1% in 2018 in Korea.
· Laboratory tests, biomarkers, and imaging studies are used for the early detection of NAFLD.
· Insulin resistance is closely related to NAFLD.
Allergy
Natural course of IgE-mediated food allergy in children
Kyunguk Jeong, Sooyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):504-511.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Dendritic, regulatory T, and regulatory B cells significantly contribute to the natural course of food allergy.
· Cow’s milk and hen’s egg allergies tend to resolve in earlier childhood but recent studies show that 50% of patients still persist into school age.
· The potential factors affecting the natural course of food allergy are age at diagnosis, symptom severity, sensitization status and its change rate, and external factors such as diet and interventions.
· There is a considerable possibility of food allergy outgrow if specific IgE levels are 2–5 kUA/L or less, but other factors such as age and recent symptoms should be considered together.
· With a clear understanding of the natural course of food allergy, pediatricians can provide appropriate assessment and interventions to our patients, and consequently can help patients overcome their food allergy and improve the social safety net.
Letter to the Editor
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Association between feeding intolerance and intestinal dysbiosis in very premature infants
Putri Maharani Tristanita Marsubrin, Agus Firmansyah, Rinawati Rohsiswatmo, Zakiudin Munasir, Saptawati Bardosono, Safarina G. Malik, Yuditiya Purwosunu, Ina S. Timan, Tetty Yuniati, Maya Yulindhini
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):501-503.   Published online October 24, 2023
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Association between maternal coronavirus disease 2019 and transient tachypnea of the newborn: a single-center study
Sung Hee Lee, Ju Hyun Jin, Jong Ha Yoo, Shin Won Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):493-500.   Published online October 24, 2023
Question: What are the adverse clinical outcomes of neonates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–infected mothers?
Finding: Infants of mothers with COVID-19 were at significantly increased risk of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), use of noninvasive ventilation, and need for supplemental oxygen (P<0.05).
Meaning: Neonates of mothers with COVID-19 are at risk of TTN and require respiratory support. Close monitoring is essential to ensuring timely intervention if required.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Attention-deficit/hyperactive-impulsive disorder symptoms among grade 1 students with reading disorder in Thailand
Patcharapun Sarisuta, Issarapa Chunsuwan, Tippawan Hansakunachai, Paskorn Sritipsukho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):485-492.   Published online October 24, 2023
Question: Would students with reading disorder have a significantly higher prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactiveimpulsive disorder (ADHD) symptoms than neurotypical students?
Finding: Students at risk of reading disorder exhibited significant ADHD symptoms compared with those not at risk of reading disorder according to all presentations of teacher assessments versus only for predominantly inattentive presentations of the parental assessments.
Meaning: Students with reading disorder have a significantly higher prevalence of ADHD symptoms than neurotypical students. Sex, parental education level, average family income, and children’s school affiliation significantly influenced reading disorder prevalence.
Gastroenterology
Inferior vena cava to aorta ratio in dehydrated pediatric patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Gilbert Sterling Octavius, Michelle Imanuelly, Johan Wibowo, Nadia Khoirunnisa Heryadi, Melanie Widjaja
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):477-484.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: The inferior vena cava to aorta (IVC/Ao) ratio measured via ultrasound has been touted as a promising noninvasive technique to assess clinically significant dehydration in pediatric patients.
Finding: Our meta-analysis found that IVC/Ao ratio had a positive likelihood ratio of 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–5.1) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.12–0.28).
Meaning: Hence, IVC/Ao ratio is insufficient to exclude or confirm significant dehydration in pediatric patients.
Editorial
Gastroenterology
Noninvasive and simple, but accurate? Meta-analysis of evidence-based point-of-care ultrasound for assessing dehydration in children
Jin-Hee Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):475-476.   Published online July 11, 2023
· Point-of-care ultrasound imaging, including measurement of the inferior vena cava/aorta ratio, is powerful for evaluating the hemodynamic status of pediatric patients.
· Owing to the limited feasibility of randomized clinical trials and insufficient data in children, imaging tools require validation.
· Objective validity meta-analyses of imaging studies can affect clinical decision-making and serve as a cornerstone for evidence-based practice in pediatrics.
Review Article
Pulmonology
Long COVID in children and adolescents: prevalence, clinical manifestations, and management strategies
Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):465-474.   Published online June 19, 2023
· Current definitions of long coronavirus disease (COVID) in children and adolescents vary in duration, ranging from 4 to 12 weeks or more.
· The clinical spectrum of long COVID in children and adolescents comprises a wide range of symptoms and might be a multisystem disorder.
· Persistent health problems with a prevalence of 1%–66.5% were reported in children and adolescents after COVID-19, with a higher incidence of persistent single or multiple symptoms.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Spontaneous movements as prognostic tool of neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants: a narrative review
Hyun Iee Shin, Myung Woo Park, Woo Hyung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):458-464.   Published online May 16, 2023
· Spontaneous movements can be useful to evaluate neuronal integrity in preterm infants.
· In General Movements Assessment, continuous cramped synchronized movements and absent fidgety movements can indicate high-risk infants for cerebral palsy.
· Recent advances in machine learning techniques have led to the automated prediction of cerebral palsy based on infantile spontaneous movements.
Letter to the Editor
Allergy
Increased serum eosinophilic cationic protein in children with nonspecific chronic cough
Young Hwan Kim, Yoon Young Jang, Jieun Jeong, Hai Lee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(10):455-457.   Published online September 14, 2023
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Impact of short and intensive art-based intervention on symptomatology and social interactions among children with autism spectrum disorder
Deldar Morad Abdulah, Bayar Mohammed Omar Abdulla, Pranee Liamputtong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(10):447-454.   Published online September 14, 2023
Question: Does a short and intensive art-based intervention affect symptoms and social interactions among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
Finding: The short and intensive art-based intervention did not affect symptoms in children with ASD level 2 or 3, including social awareness, social cognition, social communication, social motivation, and autistic mannerisms.
Meaning: The short and intensive art-based intervention did not improve the symptoms of patients with ASD.
Neonatal risk factors associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an umbrella review
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Erfan Ayubi, Sajjad Farashi, Saeid Bashirian, Fereshteh Mehri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(10):441-446.   Published online July 14, 2023
Question: The risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such as breastfeeding, congenital heart disease, and low birth weight, in neonates are not well understood.
Finding: This umbrella review obtained significant effect sizes for ADHD for congenital heart disease (odds ratio [OR], 3.04), low birth weight (OR, 2.25), never breastfed (OR, 1.55), and Apgar score (OR, 1.30).
Meaning: Congenital heart disease, low birth weight, lack of breastfeeding, and Apgar scores were significant factors for ADHD.
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