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Letter to the Editor
Other
Evaluation of simulation-based ultrasound course for pediatricians: a starting point for future training curriculum
Chon In Kuok, Avis Siu Ha Leung, Jonan Chun Yin Lee, Winnie Kwai Yu Chan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):53-55.   Published online July 28, 2021
Question: Simulation-based ultrasound training is becoming more popular. Is there a role for pediatricians in such training programs?
Finding: Our program received promising feedback from its participants. Self-rated confidence in image interpretation and ultrasound-guided catheter insertion improved after the simulation. Participants reported a higher preference for performing ultrasound scans before radiologist assessment.
Meaning: Ultrasound training can be considered as part of the pediatric training curriculum in the future.
Original Article
Cardiology
Vasovagal syncope with mild versus moderate autonomic dysfunction: a 13-year single-center experience
Han Eoul Lee, Dong Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):47-52.   Published online June 1, 2021
Question: It is well known that autonomic dysfunction contributes to vasovagal syncope (VVS). Does the degree of autonomic dysfunction contribute to clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and prognosis?
Finding: The clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and prognosis differ between patients with mild and moderate degrees of autonomic dysfunction.
Meaning: VVS is caused by autonomic dysfunction, but autonomic dysfunction severity need not be classified.
General Pediatrics
Global relationship between parent and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ju Suk Lee, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):35-46.   Published online March 29, 2021
Question: Are parent and child obesity correlated worldwide?
Finding: Overweight and obese status of parents and children were significantly associated worldwide. The association between parent and child obesity was stronger in Asia than in Europe and the Middle East, and in high-income than in middle- and low-income countries.
Meaning: Childhood obesity is highly influenced by parental weight status, indicating that parents could play an important role in its prevention.
Editorial
General Pediatrics
Is it time to add point-of-care ultrasound education to pediatric residency curriculum?
Shin Ae Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):33-34.   Published online October 12, 2021
Growing point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) use in pediatric patients has led to the need for POCUS education for pediatric residents. Recent experimental studies have suggested that POCUS education improves self-rated POCUS confidence and comfort in pediatric resident training. Considering the effective and sustainable POCUS education curriculum in pediatric resident training, simulation-based education would be a solution.
Endocrinology
Pediatricians must consider familial environment when diagnosing and managing childhood obesity
Young Suk Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):31-32.   Published online April 19, 2021
•The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, including in the Republic of Korea, creating a major public healthissue.
•Accumulated evidence indicates a strong relationship between parentalandchildobesity.
•A family-based approach is indicated to prevent and manage childhoodandadultobesity.
Pediatric obesity: life cycle approach of pediatrician and society
Yong Hee Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):29-30.   Published online December 28, 2021
• With the emerging epidemic of pediatric obesity, many endocrine comorbidities classically seen in adulthood are surfacing much earlier in life.
• Appropriate obesity counseling and education should be provided from infancy to adolescence.
• Managing pediatric obesity may require school and society involvement.
Review Article
Gastroenterology
Upper gastrointestinal tract involvement of Crohn disease: clinical implications in children and adolescents
Eun Sil Kim, Mi Jin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):21-28.   Published online September 10, 2021
· Clinical manifestations of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) are common but often clinically underestimated.
· Diagnosing CD by confirming inflammation of the UGI tract histologically is challenging because macroscopic and microscopic findings overlap with those of other diseases.
· Ongoing efforts are needed to enable a standardized assessment of UGI CD in the future.
Neurology
Worldwide national intervention of developmental screening programs in infant and early childhood
Seunghyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):10-20.   Published online September 30, 2021
∙ Prevalence rate of developmental disabilities has been reported from 8% to 15% and its rate is increasing worldwide.
∙ The critical period of intervention for developmental delay is before the child reaches 3 years of age.
∙ All primary care pediatricians should conduct developmental surveillance and screening tests to infants and children at scheduled visits. Through this, they are liable for providing early identification and timely intervention.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Growth patterns of preterm infants in Korea
Joohee Lim, So Jin Yoon, Soon Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):1-9.   Published online July 8, 2021
∙ The growth of preterm infants is a main focus of neonatology.
∙ Preterm infants in Korea, especially those with a very low birth weight, achieve retarded growth.
∙ Careful growth monitoring and early intervention will contribute to better development outcomes and quality of life for preterm infants and improve public health.
Letter to the Editor
Allergy
Environmental and dietary factors to be checked for treatment of atopic dermatitis in rural children
Sanghwa Youm, Eunjoo Lee, Jeongmin Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):661-663.   Published online October 1, 2021
Question: What are the distinctive features of rural children with atopic dermatitis?
Finding: Birch and dog dander were the second most sensitized aeroallergens (32.6%), followed by house dust mites. Doctors and guardians reported food allergy comorbidities differently (19.9% and 43.5%, respectively). Dietary restrictions without medical evaluation were observed in 39.7% of patients.
Meaning: Effects of pollen distribution and indirect animal exposure should be evaluated. Evidence-based dietary restrictions must be implemented.
Original Article
Infection
Viral load and rebound in children with coronavirus disease 2019 during the first outbreak in Daegu city
Mi Ae Chu, Yoon Young Jang, Dong Won Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Namhee Ryoo, Sunggyun Park, Jae Hee Lee, Hai Lee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):652-660.   Published online October 12, 2021
Question: What is the natural course of viral load in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A significant number of patients still had a relatively high viral load once clinically asymptomatic. Nearly half of the patients experienced viral rebound, which contributed to prolonged viral detection in their respiratory specimens.
Meaning: Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of viral rebound in asymptomatic or mild pediatric cases of COVID-19.
General Pediatrics
Efficacy of probiotics for managing infantile colic due to their anti-inflammatory properties: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Reza Shirazinia, Ali Akbar Golabchifar, Mohammad Reza Fazeli
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):642-651.   Published online April 12, 2021
Question: Do probiotics reduce colic symptoms?
Finding: Probiotics reduced colic symptoms in colicky infants probably due to the anti-inflammatory properties.
Meaning: Probiotics may be an effective and less noxious way to manage infantile colic.
Other
Spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age in 2000–2017: a global study
Ali Almasi, Sohyla Reshadat, Alireza Zangeneh, Mehdi Khezeli, Raziyeh Teimouri, Samira Rahimi Naderi, Shahram Saeidi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):632-641.   Published online March 19, 2021
Question: We assessed the spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years old during 2000–2017 using a global data.
Finding: The total number of child deaths during the study period decreased, while the number of hot spots increased among countries.
Meaning: Hot spots were concentrated in Asia in 2000 but shifted toward African countries by 2017. A cold spot formed in Europe over the study period.
Editorial
Other
Global trend and disparity of acute lower respiratory infection as cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age
Abdul Wahab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):630-631.   Published online June 11, 2021
Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. A spatial analysis explains the trends and severity based on the conditions of each country. Countries in Asia and Africa experience many cases of mortality caused by ALRI.
Neurology
Recent studies are focus on the new treatments for hypoxicischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and long-term outcomes in later childhood and adolescence in children with a history on HIE
Eun Sook Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):628-629.   Published online September 30, 2021
Neonatal encephalopathy is the most important reason for morbidity and mortality. The early detection of neonate with high risk for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and treatment are important for prevent long term complication. Hypothermia is currently standard treatment option for HIE. Several clinical studies have been performed due to improve the long term outcome. New therapeutic options including xenon, allopurinol, erythropoietin, topiramate will help to reduce neuropsychiatric disability.
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