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Letter to the Editor
Infection
Changes in epidemiology of parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus infection during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea
Kyung-Ran Kim, Hwanhee Park, Doo Ri Kim, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):320-321.   Published online March 10, 2022
Question: How the epidemiology of other childhood respiratory viruses has changed during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea?
Finding: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) typically circulated in the spring, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic started in autumn in Korea before COVID-19 pandemic. PIV and RSV seasons disappeared in 2020 and came back in 2021 with atypical seasonality. PIV season was changed from spring to autumn, and the beginning of RSV season was slightly delayed from autumn to early winter in 2021.
Meaning: Circulation of PIV and RSV was changed to unusual seasons and patterns during COVID-19 pandemic period.
Original Article
Neurology
Neurodevelopmental outcomes and comorbidities of children with congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation using the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children database
Og Hyang Kim, Seung Won Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Yun Hye Jo, Seongyeong Rhie, Man Yong Han, Kyu Young Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):312-319.   Published online December 9, 2021
Question: What comorbidities are increased in children with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)? Are there differences in the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CMT who received physical therapy versus those who did not?
Finding: The risk of congenital musculoskeletal deformities is increased in CMT. Children who did not receive physical therapy were at greater risk of neurodevelopmental delay.
Meaning: In CMT, musculoskeletal comorbidities should be identified and active early treatment provided.
Endocrinology
Effects of probiotics combined with dietary and lifestyle modification on clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized clinical trial
Thushara Rodrigo, Samaranayake Dulani, Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Arjuna P. De Silva, Jerad Fernando, H. Janaka De Silva, Jayasekera , V. Pujitha Wickramasinghe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):304-311.   Published online November 11, 2021
Question: Could probiotics be used as a therapeutic modality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?
Finding: There seem no added advantages over lifestyle modifications compared to Probiotics.
Meaning: There does not seem to be an advantage of probiotics over lifestyle modifications in improving obesity-associated metabolic derangement in children.
Editorial
Cardiology
Coronavirus disease 2019 and mRNA vaccines: what’s next – miRNA?
Joon Kee Lee, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):302-303.   Published online March 28, 2022
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. The potential role of miRNAs as biomarkers of myocarditis is promising, and miRNAs are expected to be utilized in various clinical fields in the future.
Endocrinology
Low bone mineral density can occur in children after shortterm systemic glucocorticoid treatment
Moon Bae Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):300-301.   Published online April 27, 2022
Osteoporosis diagnosed in children with chronic diseases is a major endocrine complication triggered by the disease itself or its treatment. Although age upon starting osteotoxic agents and the their duration of use are vital contributors, spontaneous recovery of bone mass following treatment completion is a privilege of this specific age group. For any patients short-term glucocorticoid therapy, bone health screening is the next step.
Review Article
Neurology
Recent trends of healthcare information and communication technologies in pediatrics: a systematic review
Se young Jung, Keehyuck Lee, Hee Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):291-299.   Published online December 15, 2021
· The innovation of healthcare information communication technology (ICT) was accelerated with the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs).
· Telemedicine currently has no technical barriers.
· EHRs and personal health records are being connected, and mobile/wearable technologies are being integrated into them.
· Conventional rule-based clinical decision support systems have already been implemented and used in EHRs and PHRs. Artificial intelligence/machine learning improves precision and accuracy.
Endocrinology
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):283-290.   Published online November 26, 2021
The prevalence of Japanese pediatric hypertension is 0.9% based on proper measurement protocols. Hypertensive children tend to be hypertensive adults. Pediatric essential hypertension is characterized by an absence of symptoms, obesity, a family history of hypertension, and a low birth weight. The most common causes of pediatric secondary hypertension are renal parenchymal and renovascular diseases. Important factors controlling pediatric hypertension include healthy lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy.
Neurology
Big data analysis and artificial intelligence in epilepsy – common data model analysis and machine learning-based seizure detection and forecasting
Yoon Gi Chung, Yonghoon Jeon, Sooyoung Yoo, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):272-282.   Published online November 26, 2021
· Big data analysis, such as common data model and artificial intelligence, can solve relevant questions and improve clinical care.
· Recent deep learning studies achieved 0.887–0.996 areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for automated interictal epileptiform discharge detection.
· Recent deep learning studies achieved 62.3%–99.0% accuracy for interictal-ictal classification in seizure detection and 75.0%– 87.8% sensitivity with a 0.06–0.21/hr false positive rate in seizure forecasting.
Letter to the Editor
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Telemedicine as progressive treatment approach for neonatal jaundice due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Sukanya Sudhir Joshi, Bithiah Roy Benroy, Isabell Nelson Lawrence, Thanuja Jayasri Suresh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):269-271.   Published online February 7, 2022
Question: How can the management of neonatal jaundice (NJ) be enhanced through telemedicine?
Finding: Teleconsultations, drive-through testing, and the use of an application to assess neonatal jaundice at home are being successfully used, but they must be further researched before being implemented on a larger scale.
Meaning: Recent technology allows for the treatment of NJ at home with an application that helps reduce hospital burden.
Original Article
Other
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):262-268.   Published online November 5, 2021
Question: When is the best screening timing and what is the risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preterm infants?
Finding: Ultrasonography performed earlier than 38 weeks of postmenstrual age caused unnecessary subsequent ultrasonography. DDH did not occur predominantly on the left side or in breech infants.
Meaning: The screening timing, etiology, and risk factors for DDH in preterm infants are somewhat different from those in term infants.
General Pediatrics
Effect of 2–6 weeks of systemic steroids on bone mineral density in children
Athira Kuniyil, Somdipa Pal, Namrita Sachdev, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):254-261.   Published online November 18, 2021
Question: Does steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children affect bone mineral content (BMC) or density (BMD)?
Finding: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks significantly decreased BMC and BMD of the whole body, total body less the head, lumbar spine, and distal radius. A significant negative correlation was observed among BMD, duration, and cumulative dose.
Meaning: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children negatively affected BMC and BMD.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Is type 1 diabetes related to coronavirus disease 2019 in children?
Minsun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):252-253.   Published online March 29, 2022
· Evidence shows that patients with type 1 diabetes have been severely affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in various ways.
· Although there is no reliable evidence that COVID-19 worsens or induces diabetes, it can impair β-cell insulin secretion and glucose control by inducing inflammation and cytokine production.
· A study is needed of the short- and long-term relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 in the Korean pediatric population.
Infection
Effects of nonpharmaceutical interventions for coronavirus disease 2019
Jae Hong Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):250-251.   Published online March 22, 2022
∙ Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have decreased the incidence of various infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
∙ During the 2-year COVID-19 pandemic, NPIs changed patients’ daily lives, and the impact on mental health was notable.
∙ The effects of NPIs were evaluated in detail, considering both infections and mental health.
Review Article
Other
Knowledge-guided artificial intelligence technologies for decoding complex multiomics interactions in cells
Dohoon Lee, Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):239-249.   Published online November 26, 2021
· The need for data-driven modeling of multiomics interactions was recently highlighted.
· Many artificial intelligence-driven models have been developed, but only a few have incorporated biological domain knowledge within model architectures or training procedures.
· Here we provide a comprehensive review of deep learning models to decipher complex multiomics interactions regarding the biological guidance imposed upon them to facilitate further development of biological knowledge-guided deep learning models.
Cardiology
Implication of microRNA as a potential biomarker of myocarditis
Jin-Hee Oh, Gi Beom Kim, Heeyoung Seok
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):230-238.   Published online March 2, 2022
· Myocarditis was recently examined quantitatively as inflammation of the heart muscle based on endomyocardial biopsy, and its noninvasive diagnosis remains unsatisfactory.
· Additionally, numerous miRNAs (miR-155, miR-146b, miR-590, miR-221, miR-222, etc.) coupled with inflammation or viral activation have been examined in myocarditis patients or mouse models.
· The recent identification of mmu-miR-721 (has-miR-Chr8: 96), a myocarditis-specific microRNA, demonstrated its potential as an acute myocarditis biomarker.
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