Accepted articles

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Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in various pediatric neurologic diseases
Jeongho Lee
Received September 16, 2021  Accepted December 3, 2021  
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has many important biomarkers that is commonly analyzed in pediatric neurologic diseases, including central nervous system infection and inflammation. Neurologic disease in pediatrics are difficult to diagnosis, there are challenges in developing CSF profiles. Some biomarkers are expected to help differential diagnosis.  
Review Article
Update on benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis
Yeong Seok Lee, Ga Hee Lee, Young Se Kwon
Received July 21, 2021  Accepted December 15, 2021  
Benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) are characterized by afebrile convulsions associated with viral gastroenteritis in previously healthy infants and children. The main causative pathogens are rotavirus and norovirus. CwG occurs frequently in both East Asian and Western countries. The prevalence of CwG was reportedly not decreased by the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, and the prevalence of norovirus-associated CwG has...
Application of 3-dimensional printing implants for bone tumors
Jong Woong Park, Hyun Guy Kang
Received August 27, 2021  Accepted December 3, 2021  
Three-dimensional (3D) additive manufacturing has recently been used in various medical fields. Among them, orthopedic oncology is one that utilizes it most actively. Bone and tumor modeling for surgical planning, personalized surgical instrument fabrication, and implant fabrication are typical applications. The 3D-printed metal implants using titanium alloy powder have created a revolutionary change in bone reconstruction that can be customized...
Factors influencing development of the infant microbiota: From prenatal period to early infancy
Received July 15, 2021  Accepted December 3, 2021  
The collection of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya colonizingthe gastrointestinal tract is termed the “gut microbiota.”1) The microbiota offers many benefits to the host, through a range of physiological functions such as strengthening gut integrity or shaping the intestinal epithelium,2) harvesting energy,3) protecting against pathogens,4) and regulating host immunity.5) The newborn infant microbiota is highly dynamic and undergoes rapid changes in...
Diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease: recent guidelines and z score systems
Sung Hye Kim
Received September 22, 2021  Accepted November 25, 2021  
Kawasaki disease, an acute systemic vasculitis affecting children, is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in developed countries. This vasculitis has a predilection for the coronary artery, and coronary artery abnormalities are the main criteria for its diagnosis. The diagnosis of coronary abnormalities has historically been based on dichotomous criteria, but recent guidelines have accepted the body surface area–adjusted...
Recent trends of healthcare information and communication technologies in pediatrics: A systematic review
Se young Jung, Keehyuck Lee, Hee Hwang
Received July 31, 2020  Accepted November 2, 2021  
As information communication technology (ICT) has advanced, the healthcare industry has embraced it to reduce medical costs, improve health outcomes, and increase patient satisfaction. Healthcare ICT revolutionizes pediatric healthcare. This study aimed to categorize and synthesize findings from the literature regarding the application of ICT in pediatric patients. This systematic review is based on a comprehensive search of Embase, Medline,...
Breastfeeding and vitamin D
Ju Sun Heo, Young Min Ahn, Ai-Rhan Ellen Kim, Son Moon Shin
Received April 12, 2021  Accepted November 15, 2021  
The recent re-emergence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and rickets among breastfed infants without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation has been reported worldwide. Breastfed infants are particularly vulnerable to VDD because of the low vitamin D content of breast milk, restricted sunlight exposure, increased pollution, and limited natural dietary sources of vitamin D. The prevalence of VDD in...
Original Article
Neurodevelopmental outcomes and comorbidities of children with congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation using the national health screening program for infants and children database
Og Hyang Kim, Seung Won Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Yun Hye Jo, Seongyeong Rhie, Man Yong Han, Kyu Young Chae
Received September 14, 2021  Accepted November 5, 2021  
Background: Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder occurring at birth or in infancy.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the risk of comorbidities in congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and explore the differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes between children who received physical therapy and those who did not. Methods: Children with CMT born in 2008 and 2009 in Korea were...
Neonatal sepsis-causing bacterial pathogens and outcome of trends of their antimicrobial susceptibility a 20-year period at a neonatal intensive care unit
Woo Sun Song, Hye Won Park, Moon Youn Oh, Jae Young Jo, Chae Young Kim, Jung Ju Lee, Euiseok Jung, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim
Received May 17, 2021  Accepted November 15, 2021  
Background: Due to increases in the number of infants born with younger gestational age and lower birth weight, the incidence of neonatal sepsis is increasing. We investigated the changes in the prevalence of bacterial pathogens, their antimicrobial susceptibility, and sepsis-related mortality during 20 years at a neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: The study period was divided into two 10-year phases (1998–2007...
Review Article
A new perspective on cholesterol in pediatric health: Association of vitamin D metabolism, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems
Jeana Hong
Received May 22, 2020  Accepted November 13, 2021  
Cholesterol, the main structural molecule of cell membranes, is involved in essential functions of the human body. Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) that is observed even in childhood. To reduce the risk of CVDs in children, several clinical guidelines have been published for the management of pediatric dyslipidemia. However, pediatric dyslipidemia is also associated with...
Original Article
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Received May 5, 2021  Accepted November 18, 2021  
Background: Dyslipidemia is a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide due to its significant association with cardiovascular disease. Primary dyslipidemias are commonly familial syndromes that can be completely asymptomatic.
Purpose: Apart from the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), limited data are currently available on the direct effects of dyslipidemia on myocardial function in children. Methods: We recruited 25...
Review Article
Epidemiological changes in infectious diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea: a systematic review
Jong Gyun Ahn
Received October 6, 2021  Accepted November 19, 2021  
In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, countries worldwide have implemented several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to contain its spread before vaccines and treatments were developed. NPIs included social distancing, mask wearing, intensive contact tracing and isolation, and sanitization. In addition to their effectiveness at preventing the rapid spread of COVID-19, NPIs have caused secondary changes in the...
Clinical note
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children induced by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) DKA post covid 19 in children
Neha Thakur, Narendra Rai
Received July 14, 2021  Accepted September 15, 2021  
Review Article
Knowledge-guided artificial intelligence technologies for decoding complex multiomics interactions in cells
Dohoon Lee, Sun Kim
Received September 15, 2021  Accepted October 21, 2021  
Cells survive and proliferate through complex interactions among diverse molecules across multi-omics layers. Conventional experimental approaches for identifying these interactions have built a firm foundation for molecular biology, but their scalability is gradually becoming inadequate compared to the rapid accumulation of multi-omics data measured by high-throughput technologies. Therefore, the need for data-driven computational modeling of interactions within cells has been...
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Received July 10, 2021  Accepted October 28, 2021  
Blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents is associated with their growth. BP is most strongly associated with height during height gain and with degree of obesity after reaching final height. BP in childhood and adolescence is correlated with BP in adulthood. The pathophysiology of pediatric essential hypertension is associated with obesity, excess salt intake, and a low birth weight....
Big data analysis and artificial intelligence (AI) in epilepsy – common data model analysis and machine learning–based seizure detection and forecasting
Yoon Gi Chung, Yonghoon Jeon, Sooyoung Yoo, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang
Received May 31, 2021  Accepted October 27, 2021  
There has been significant interest in big data analysis and artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine. Ever-increasing medical data and advanced computing power have enabled the number of big data analyses and AI studies to increase rapidly. Here we briefly introduce epilepsy, big data, and AI and review big data analysis using a common data model. Studies in which AI has...
Etiological and pathophysiological enigmas of severe coronavirus disease 2019, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and Kawasaki disease
Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Received August 19, 2021  Accepted November 1, 2021  
During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been reported worldwide since the first cases were reported in Europe in April 2020. MIS-C is temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and shows Kawasaki disease (KD)-like features. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics in COVID-19, KD, and MIS-C differ, but...
Original Article
Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis
Siyoung Choe, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Deokjin Kim
Received April 7, 2021  Accepted October 14, 2021  
Background: Various interventions have been tested to prevent or treat childhood obesity in South Korea. However, the overall effect of those interventions is unclear, as very few reviews and meta-analyses were specific to Korean children and adolescents.
Purpose: We aimed to examine the overall effect of obesity interventions among Korean children and adolescents, while also examining differences by gender, age...
Effect of 2–6 weeks of systemic steroids on bone mineral density in children
Athira Kunyil, Somdipa Pal, Namrita Sachdev, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav
Received January 15, 2021  Accepted October 1, 2021  
Background: The use of systemic steroids for 6+ weeks in children is associated with decreased bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). However, the effects of a shorter duration of use on BMD are unknown.
Purpose: To determine the effect of the use of systemic steroids for 2–6 weeks on BMD and BMC in pediatric patients. Methods: Twenty-five pediatric patients...
Original Article - Clinical trial
Effects of probiotics combined with dietary and lifestyle modification on clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters in obese children with NASH/NAFLD: a randomized clinical trial
Thushara Rodrigo, Samaranayake Dulani, Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Arjuna P. De Silva, Jerad Fernando, H. Janaka De Silva, Jayasekera , V. Pujitha Wickramasinghe
Received June 4, 2021  Accepted October 23, 2021  
Background: Childhood obesity is a global problem associated with metabolic abnormalities. The gut-liver axis is thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis. Probiotics are known to alter the gut microbiota and, therefore, could be a therapeutic option in the management of childhood obesity-related complications.
Purpose: This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of probiotics on metabolic derangement...
Review Article
Psychosocial aspects of children with chronic kidney disease and their families
Alemsungla Aier, Priya Pais, Vijaya Raman
Received July 21, 2021  Accepted October 13, 2021  
Pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a chronic illness that affects the overall quality of life of patients during childhood. This article highlights the psychological and social burden of CKD in patients and their families. Patients with CKD and their families require comprehensive treatment for psychosocial problems. Therefore, it is crucial for pediatricians to screen for these issues and refer...
Original Article
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Received July 31, 2021  Accepted October 12, 2021  
Background: The delayed diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) requires complex treatment and sometimes progresses to hip osteoarthritis regardless.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and screening time for DDH in preterm infants. Methods: A total of 155 preterm infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks screened for DDH with ultrasonography were enrolled in this...
Review Article
Four months of rifampicin monotherapy for latent tuberculosis infection in children
Chi Eun Oh, Dick Menzies
Received August 11, 2021  Accepted October 14, 2021  
Diagnosing and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important part of efforts to combat TB. The Korean guidelines for TB published in 2020 recommend two LTBI regimens for children and adolescents: nine months of daily isoniazid (9H) and three months of daily isoniazid plus rifampicin. Isoniazid for 6–12 months has been used to effectively treat LTBI in children for...
Correspondence and reply
Importance of using the updated guidelines for screening pediatric high blood pressure
Amar Taksande
Received December 27, 2020  Accepted June 9, 2021  
Review Article
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Received July 1, 2021  Accepted October 18, 2021  
We frequently encounter newborn infants with thrombocytosis in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, neonatal thrombocytosis is not yet fully understood. Thrombocytosis is more frequently identified in newborns and young infants, notably more often in those younger than two years than in older children or adults. The production of megakaryocytes (megakaryopoiesis) and platelets (thrombopoiesis) is mainly regulated by thrombopoietin (TPO)....
Genetic Factors in Precocious Puberty
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Received April 21, 2021  Accepted October 1, 2021  
Pubertal onset is known to result from reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controlled by complex interactions of genetic and nongenetic factors. Most cases of precocious puberty (PP) are diagnosed as central PP (CPP), defined as premature activation of the HPG axis. The cause of CPP in most girls is not identifiable and, thus, referred to as idiopathic...
Original Article
Early initiation of breastfeeding and factors associated with its delay among mothers at discharge from a single hospital
J. Jenifer Florence Mary, R. Sindhuri, A. ArulKumaran, Amol R. Dongre
Received February 3, 2021  Accepted September 28, 2021  
Background: According to the National Family Health Survey – 4, in India, 78.9% of deliveries occur in institutions, although only 42.6% of new mothers initiate breastfeeding within one hour of delivery.
Purpose: To estimate the proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) among new mothers at discharge from a tertiary care hospital and identify the determinants of delayed initiation of breastfeeding...
Review Article
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Received June 2, 2021  Accepted September 15, 2021  
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is among the most common causes of childhood blindness. Three phases of ROP epidemics have been observed worldwide since ROP was first described in the 1940s. Despite advances in neonatal care, the occurrence of ROP and associated visual impairment has been increasing somewhere on Earth and remains difficult to control. Conventional treatment options for preventing ROP...
Is fetal nuchal cord associated with autism spectrum disorder? A meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Maryam Ahmadi, Azam Maleki
Received April 21, 2021  Accepted September 13, 2021  
Purpose There is inconsistent evidence about the association between fetal nuchal cord and the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We performed a meta-analysis to investigate whether fetal nuchal cord is associated with an increased risk of ASD in offspring. Methods Three main English databases were searched until January 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Study heterogeneity was...
Changes in age-specific seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus and impact of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korea
Byung Ok Kwak, Young Jin Hong, Dong Hyun Kim
Received December 7, 2020  Accepted September 11, 2021  
The Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia. Since the introduction of a universal JE vaccination program and urbanization of Korea, the incidence of JE has dramatically decreased in Korea. However, recent JE cases have occurred, predominantly among unvaccinated adults and with a shift in age distribution. Here we aimed to review the changes...
BP measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Received February 4, 2021  Accepted August 19, 2021  
A mercury sphygmomanometer (MS) has been the gold standard for pediatric blood pressure (BP) measurements, and diagnosing hypertension is critical. However, because of environmental issues, other alternatives are needed. Non-invasive BP measurement devices are largely divided into auscultatory and oscillometric types. The aneroid sphygmomanometer, the currently used auscultatory method, is inferior to mercury sphygmomanometers in terms of limitations such as...
Original Article
Non-fatal injury in Korean children and adolescents from 2007 to 2018
Gyu Min Yeon, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Received April 29, 2021  Accepted August 30, 2021  
Background: Injury is the leading cause of death or disability in children and adolescents. Deaths from injuries have recently declined, but studies on the occurrence of non-fatal injuries are lacking.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of non-fatal injury in children and adolescents younger than 20 years based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data...
Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling
Agus Santosa, Essa Novanda Arif, Dinal Abdul Ghoni
Received January 27, 2021  Accepted April 27, 2021  
Background: Stunting is affected by various factors from mother and child. Previous studies assessed only one or more influencing variables. Unfortunately, nor the significant influence of maternal and child factors nor the indicators contributing to maternal and child factors that affect the stunting incidence have ever been analyzed.
Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of maternal and child factors on...
Original Article - Clinical trial
Randomized controlled trial of effect of N-acetylcysteine as an antioxidant on iron overload in children with thalassemia major
Yasmen A Mohamed, Mohamed H Meabed, Amany Ashraf, Dalia S Morgan, Mostafa G Abdul Latif, Rehab M Abd-Elkareem, Heba M Ahmed
Received February 15, 2020  Accepted October 16, 2020  
Background: β-Thalassemias are characterized by the presence of mutations in the globin gene that result in the absence or reduced synthesis of β-globin chains of the hemoglobin tetramer. Several studies have reported increased oxidative stress in β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a derivative of L-cysteine amino acid, is commonly used as a mucolytic drug. Numerous studies have reported efficient...
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