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Accuracy of predicted adult height using the Greulich-Pyle method and artificial intelligence medical device
Dongho Cho, Yun Sun Choi, Hayun Oh, Young min Ahn, Ji-Young Seo
Review Article
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance in children
Kyungchul Song, Ho-Seong Kim, Hyun Wook Chae
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of liver diseases characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. The global prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in both adults and children. In Korea, the prevalence of pediatric NAFLD increased from 8.2% in 2009 to 12.1% in 2018 according to a national surveillance study. For early screening...
Recent topics on gastrointestinal allergic disorders
Yoshiyuki Yamada
Gastrointestinal (GI) allergies are broadly associated with food allergies and divided into groups based on the degree of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) involvement: IgE-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, and mixed. Non-IgE-mediated GI food allergies are mostly observed in neonates and infants and include food protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein–induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and food protein–induced enteropathy (FPE). In addition to the classical...
Hearing loss in neonates and infants
Goun Choe, Su-Kyoung Park, Bong Jik Kim
Hearing in neonates and infants is crucial for their development of language and communication skills. Unless hearing loss is appropriately managed early, it can cause a significant socioeconomic burden considering its detrimental impact on the child's development and its common nature. It is also the most common congenital sensory deficit, with an approximate incidence of 1.5 per 1000 newborns. Its...
Update on eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease beyond eosinophilic esophagitis in children
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) is an emerging condition worldwide in both children and adults, although it is considered rare. EGID has been underestimated owing to its underdiagnosis in the past, and its prevalence has recently increased. The diagnosis of EGID is based on histopathologic findings of endoscopic mucosal biopsy in which the total number of infiltrating eosinophils in each segment...
Environmental changes surrounding congenital heart disease
Eun-Young Choi
As the outcomes of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) improve, the number of patients is accumulating and the proportion of adult CHD patients is gradually increasing. Accordingly, the proportion of typical adult diseases such as coronary arterial disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension among patients with CHD is increasing, as is the medical burden due to residual cardiac problems, heart...
Clinical note
Biallelic POLR3A variants cause Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome with atypical brain involvement: a case report
Byungseung Moon, Minhye Kim, Hye Jin Kim, Jae So Cho, Hey Joon Son, Byung Chan Lim, Ki Joong Kim, Jong Hee Chae, Soo Yeon Kim
Review Article
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants
In Gyu Song
During the last several decades, the number of preterm infants has increased, and their survival rate has improved owing to advances in perinatal care. As more preterm infants survive, many studies examine their neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study aimed to summarize the neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants according to gestational age at birth using a recently published meta-analysis. The prevalence of...
EEG source localization
Tae-Hoon Eom
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been and is still widely used in brain function research. EEG has advantages over other neuroimaging modalities. First, it not only directly images the electrical activity of neurons; it has a higher temporal resolution. Furthermore, current advanced technologies enable accurate mathematical calculations and sophisticated localization from EEG data. Several important factors should be considered for EEG analysis...
Treatment of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
Gyuhong Shim
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection worldwide, the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children, and a cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in the brain. Infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection may benefit from hearing and neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly if antiviral treatment is initiated within the first month of life. Infants with life-threatening...
Original Article
Predicting COVID-19 transmission in a student population in Seoul, South Korea, 2020–2021
Young Hwa Lee, Han Ho Kim, Young June Choe
Background: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission depends on factors such as demography, comorbidity, and patterns of daily activity, a better understanding of the societal factors of the infection among students would be useful in planning prevention strategies. However, no studies to date have focused on societal factors associated with COVID-19 transmission among students.
Purpose: This study aimed to characterize the...
Review Article
K-DST: Development, Applications, and Implications for the Future Early Childhood Development Interventions
Dooyoung Kim, Young June Choe, Bilal Aurang Zeb Durrani, EunYoung Kim, Junghye Byeon, Baik-Lin Eun
A series of evidences harnessing the importance of early childhood development (ECD) has transformed the child health monitoring and screening tools. The development of Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST) has expanded the applications of child health screening in a large of number of infants and children in Korea and is contributing to the early detection of...
Original Article
Seroprevalence of Maternal Peripartum HTLV-1 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Nigerian Literature
Abdulrasheed Usman, Muhammad Hamis Musa, Bukhari Shuaib, Olayemi Balogun, Mukhtar Adeiza
The peripartum period is both a highly vulnerable stage and a significant indicator of a population’s health status. Interest is increasing in Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) transmission due to its adverse health impacts. However, nationally representative data on HTLV-1 that are important for health planning are unavailable for this subpopulation. This study aimed to conduct a pooled estimate...
Clinical characteristics of pediatric patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 versus common human coronaviruses: a national multicenter study
In Suk Sol, Eun Lee, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Yong Ju Lee, Hye Yung Yum, Mi-Hee Lee, Mi Ae Chu, Hui Jeong Moon, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ju Hee Seo, Jung Yeon Shim, Ji Young Ahn, Yoon Young Jang, Hai Lee Chung, Eun Hee Chung, Kyunghoon Kim, Bong-Seong Kim, Cheol Hong Kim, Yang Park, Meeyong Shin, Kyung Suk Lee, Man Yong Han, Soo-Jong Hong, Eun Kyeong Kang, Chang Keun Kim
Background: Human coronaviruses (HCoV) cause mild upper respiratory infections; however, in 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged, causing an acute respiratory disease pandemic. Coronaviruses exhibit marked epidemiological and clinical differences.
Purpose: This study compared the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 versus HCoV. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 data were obtained from the Korea...
Review Article
Role of social media use in onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children
Mauro Cinquetti, Vanessa Dargenio, Michele Fingerle, Carolina Marchiotto, Marco Biasin, Massimo Pettoello Mantovani, Flavia Indrio
The use of social media has increased considerably in recent years. However, these tools are not always used consciously, and the stress that can result from their inappropriate use is often underestimated. Children, who tend to be heavy users of social media, are exposed to risks associated with their intensive use. Data on the consequences of social media on children’s...
Liver fibrosis in children: a comprehensive review of mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapy
Elif Ozdogan, Cigdem Arikan
Chronic liver disease incidence is increasing among children worldwide due to a multitude of epidemiological changes. Most of these chronic insults to the pediatric liver progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis to different degrees. Liver and immune physiology differs significantly in children from adults. Because most of pediatric liver diseases have no definitive therapy, a better understanding of population and disease-specific...
Efficacy of body position on gastric residual in preterm infant: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Kurvatteppa Halemani, Alwin Issac, Sanjay Dhiraaj, Prabhakar Mishra
Background: Preterm babies are born before completion of 37 weeks of gestational. Compared to term neonates, preterm babies are difficult to adjust to extra uterine life and 15 (11%) millions babies born before 37 weeks of gestation.
Purpose: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate evidence concerning the efficacy of body position on gastric residual volume among preterm infants. Methods:...
Association of gut microbiota with obesity in children and adolescents
Pediatric obesity is among the most serious global health problems whose prevalence has increased over the past decade. Pediatric obesity increases concomitant health problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and psychological problems, which often progress into adulthood. The gut microbiota is a new factor in the development of obesity, which is affected by renowned risk...
Gut microbiota affects brain development and behavior
Gun-Ha Kim, Jung-Ok Shim
The gut covers a large surface area of the body and faces various external factors. The brain works in concert with commensal microbes in the gut to efficiently process the enormous amount of chemical signals that enter the gut every day. This review discusses: 1) evidence that gut bacteria can alter brain development and behavior, 2) mechanisms by which gut...
Protein substitutions as new-generation pharmanutrition approach to managing phenylketonuria
Fatma Nur Keskin, Teslime Özge Şahin, Raffaele Capasso, Duygu Ağagündüz
Phenylketonuria (PKU), an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder, is caused by a mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene on the 12th chromosome. Defective PAH activity ultimately leads to increased phenylalanine (Phe) blood concentrations (hyperphenylalaninemia) that harm the brain. The primary purpose of PKU treatment is to maintain the blood Phe level to prevent certain undesired effects. Hence, lifelong medical...
New approaches to immunotherapy in house dust mite allergy
In Sik Kim
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has developed over the last few decades and has emerged as a promising treatment. House dust mite is a target allergen in AIT, and various modified house dust mite allergens have been improved for their efficacy. Moreover, clinical trials have proved their significantly therapeutic effects in allergy. This article review focuses on house dust mite allergens developed...
High-resolution esophageal manometry in children
Functional disorders of the esophagus are known as esophageal dysmotility disorders. Esophageal manometry can be used to study swallowing disorders, feeding problems, non-obstructive dysphagia, and lower esophageal dysfunction. This paper discusses the recent advances in and reviews the use of high-resolution esophageal manometry in children. The Chicago 4.0 classification should be used judiciously in children. Manometric studies can guide the...
Ferritin in pediatric critical illness: a scoping review
Ivy Cerelia Valerie, Anak Agung Sagung Mirah Prabandari, Dyah Kanya Wati
This scoping review aimed to elucidate and summarize the predictive role of serum ferritin in critical pediatric illness. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology was employed to conduct a scoping review of five databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Epistemonikos) from the date of inception through January 24, 2022. Primary research studies involving subjects aged <18...
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