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Review Article
Therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in children and adolescents
Soo-Han Choi, Jae Hong Choi, Ki Wook Yun
Received March 15, 2022  Accepted June 2, 2022  
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory illness in most children and adolescents, but a small proportion develop severe or critical illness. Although pediatric clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 are sparse, there are some available drugs for children and adolescents with severe COVID-19. This review summarizes clinical data focusing on antiviral agents and immunomodulators for COVID-19 treatment. Additionally, the current...
Clinical note
Haploinsufficiency A20 misdiagnosed as PFAPA syndrome with Kikuchi disease
Kyo Jin Jo, Su Eun Park, Chong Kun Cheon, Seung Hwan Oh, Seong Heon Kim
Received March 21, 2022  Accepted June 6, 2022  
Graves’ disease: an uncommon cause of late sequelae following DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms)
Therdpong Tempark, Amatanun Tangthanapalakul, Tawatchai Deekajorndech, Susheera Chatproedprai, Vichit Supornsilchai, Siriwan Wananukul
Received March 4, 2022  Accepted June 2, 2022  
Review Article
Research trends on causes of Kawasaki disease in the COVID-19 era: focus on viral infections
Young Hwan Lee
Received January 25, 2022  Accepted May 14, 2022  
Despite studies on the etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) ongoing for half a century since its discovery, its cause has not yet been clearly identified. Although the clinical, epidemiological, and pathophysiological characteristics of KD are presumed to be closely related to infectious diseases, studies of various pathogens to identify its etiology have been actively conducted. To date, bacteria, fungi, and...
Original Article
Effect of cyclic pamidronate administration on osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major: A single-center study
Mahmoud A. El-Hawy, Nagwan Y. Saleh
Received May 18, 2019  Accepted August 12, 2020  
Background: Osteopenia and osteoporosis represent a prominent cause of morbidity in children with thalassemia. Multiple factors are responsible for the pathogenesis of bone loss in thalassemia, including diabetes, hypothyroidism, parathyroid gland dysfunction, accelerated hemopoiesis, direct iron toxicity of osteoblasts, iron chelators, and deficiencies of growth hormone or insulin growth factors.
Purpose: To assess the effect of pamidronate administration on β-thalassemia major–induced...
Review Article
Neonatal hypertension: concerns within and beyond the neonatal intensive care unit
Kathleen Altemose, Janis Dionne
Received March 19, 2022  Accepted May 12, 2022  
Neonatal hypertension occurs in 1-2% of neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) although may be underdiagnosed. Blood pressure values in premature neonates change rapidly in the first days and weeks of life which may make it more difficult to recognize abnormal blood pressure values. In addition, the proper blood pressure measurement technique must be used to ensure the...
Original Article
Treatment outcomes of high-dose chemotherapy plus stem cell rescue in high-risk neuroblastoma patients in Thailand
Kunanya Suwannaying, Piti Techavichit, Patcharee Komvilaisak, Napat Laoaroon, Nattee Narkbunnam, Kleebsabai Sanpakit, Kanhatai Chiengthong, Thirachit Chotsampancharoen, Lalita Sathitsamitphong, Chalongpon Santong, Panya Seksarn, Suradej Hongeng, Surapon Wiangnon
Received March 13, 2022  Accepted May 3, 2022  
Background: In 2013, the Thai Pediatric Oncology Group (ThaiPOG) introduced a national protocol in which high-dose chemotherapy plus stem cell rescue is performed without immunotherapy. Methods: This study aimed to elucidate the outcomes of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients treated with the ThaiPOG protocol. This retrospective cohort review included 48 patients (30 male, 18 female) with a median age of 3...
Plastic bottle feeding produces changes in biochemical parameters in human infants – A pilot study
Mahendra Kumar Pant, Abul Hasan Ahmad, Manisha Naithani, Jayanti Pant
Received February 9, 2022  Accepted April 28, 2022  
Background: Plastic bottles are widely used by people to feed their infants when breastfeeding is not possible. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor is widely used in the manufacturing of plastic wares and is leached out from these plastic wares on exposure to high temperature, changed pH or cleaning the plastic wares by harsh detergents.
Purpose: Feeding through plastic bottles over...
Editorial: 'The application of 3D-printing implant for bone tumors'
Yongsung Kim
Received January 10, 2022  Accepted March 28, 2022  
Increasing our understanding of rotavirus-induced central nervous system manifestations
Jon Soo Kim
Received March 6, 2022  Accepted April 6, 2022  
Review Article
Diagnosis and management of asthma in infants and preschoolers
Hai Lee Chung
Received November 25, 2021  Accepted March 31, 2022  
Asthma is one of the most common chronic disease affecting children, and it often starts in infancy and preschool years. In previous birth cohorts, frequent wheezing in early life was associated with the development of asthma in later childhood and reduced lung function persisting into adulthood. Preschool wheezing is considered an umbrella term for distinctive diseases with different clinical features...
Factors to consider before implementing telemedicine protocols to manage neonatal jaundice
Heui Seung Jo
Received February 8, 2022  Accepted April 2, 2022  
Review Article
Neonatal seizures: stepping outside the comfort zone
Menna Hashish, Mohamed Reda Bassiouny
Received January 17, 2022  Accepted March 22, 2022  
Seizures are the most common neurological disorders in newborns. Managing neonatal seizures is challenging, especially for neurologists who are not neonatal specialists. Acute brain injury during ischemic insult is a key component of seizure occurrence, while genetic and metabolic disorders play less prevalent but more severe roles. The diagnosis of neonatal seizure is ambiguous, as the subjective differentiation between seizure...
Neonatal Seizures: Diagnostic Updates Based on New Definition and Classification
Eun-Hee Kim, Jeongmin Shin, Byoung Kook Lee
Received August 31, 2021  Accepted November 5, 2021  
Neonatal seizures are the most common neurological symptoms caused by various etiologies in the neonatal period, but their diagnosis and treatment are challenging because their pathophysiology and electroclinical manifestations differ from those of patients in older age groups. Many seizures present as electrographic-only events without clinical signs or as obscure clinical manifestations that are difficult to distinguish from other neonatal...
Characteristics of z score systems for diagnosing coronary abnormalities in Kawasaki disease
Gyeong-Hee Yoo
Received December 29, 2021  Accepted February 22, 2022  
Review Article
Motor performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: focus on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency
Khushboo Prashant Adhvaryu, Suruliraj Karthikbabu, Pratiksha Tilak Rao
Received July 15, 2021  Accepted January 22, 2022  
The literature review aimed to analyze studies assessing the motor abilities of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The PubMed, OVID, Cochrane, and PEDro databases were searched for relevant articles published between February 2003 and September 2021. Despite the retrieval of limited studies, most included in this review were of fair...
Rotavirus infection–associated central nervous system complications: clinicoradiological features and potential mechanisms
Kyung Yeon Lee
Received August 29, 2021  Accepted January 22, 2022  
Despite the introduction of vaccines in 2006, rotavirus remains one of the most common causes of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. While many studies have conclusively shown that rotavirus infection causes gastroenteritis and is associated with various extra-intestinal manifestations including central nervous system (CNS) complications, extra-intestinal manifestations due to rotavirus infection have been relatively overlooked. Rotavirus infection–associated CNS complications are common in...
Update on benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis
Yeong Seok Lee, Ga Hee Lee, Young Se Kwon
Received July 21, 2021  Accepted December 15, 2021  
Benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) are characterized by afebrile convulsions associated with viral gastroenteritis in previously healthy infants and children. The main causative pathogens are rotavirus and norovirus. CwG occurs frequently in both East Asian and Western countries. The prevalence of CwG was reportedly not decreased by the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, and the prevalence of norovirus-associated CwG has...
Application of 3-dimensional printing implants for bone tumors
Jong Woong Park, Hyun Guy Kang
Received August 27, 2021  Accepted December 3, 2021  
Three-dimensional (3D) additive manufacturing has recently been used in various medical fields. Among them, orthopedic oncology is one that utilizes it most actively. Bone and tumor modeling for surgical planning, personalized surgical instrument fabrication, and implant fabrication are typical applications. The 3D-printed metal implants using titanium alloy powder have created a revolutionary change in bone reconstruction that can be customized...
Factors influencing development of the infant microbiota: From prenatal period to early infancy
Received July 15, 2021  Accepted December 3, 2021  
The collection of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya colonizingthe gastrointestinal tract is termed the “gut microbiota.”1) The microbiota offers many benefits to the host, through a range of physiological functions such as strengthening gut integrity or shaping the intestinal epithelium,2) harvesting energy,3) protecting against pathogens,4) and regulating host immunity.5) The newborn infant microbiota is highly dynamic and undergoes rapid changes in...
Diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease: recent guidelines and z score systems
Sung Hye Kim
Received September 22, 2021  Accepted November 25, 2021  
Kawasaki disease, an acute systemic vasculitis affecting children, is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in developed countries. This vasculitis has a predilection for the coronary artery, and coronary artery abnormalities are the main criteria for its diagnosis. The diagnosis of coronary abnormalities has historically been based on dichotomous criteria, but recent guidelines have accepted the body surface area–adjusted...
Breastfeeding and vitamin D
Ju Sun Heo, Young Min Ahn, Ai-Rhan Ellen Kim, Son Moon Shin
Received April 12, 2021  Accepted November 15, 2021  
The recent re-emergence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and rickets among breastfed infants without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation has been reported worldwide. Breastfed infants are particularly vulnerable to VDD because of the low vitamin D content of breast milk, restricted sunlight exposure, increased pollution, and limited natural dietary sources of vitamin D. The prevalence of VDD in...
Original Article
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Received May 5, 2021  Accepted November 18, 2021  
Background: Dyslipidemia is a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide due to its significant association with cardiovascular disease. Primary dyslipidemias are commonly familial syndromes that can be completely asymptomatic.
Purpose: Apart from the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), limited data are currently available on the direct effects of dyslipidemia on myocardial function in children. Methods: We recruited 25...
Correspondence and reply
Importance of using the updated guidelines for screening pediatric high blood pressure
Amar Taksande
Received December 27, 2020  Accepted June 9, 2021  
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