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Development of Periventricular Leukomalacia and Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Newborns and Relationship with Ventilator Care (Study of Ventilator Care as a Risk Factor of PVL and PV-IVH)

Korean Journal of Pediatrics 2005;48(12):1330-1336.
Published online December 15, 2005.
Development of Periventricular Leukomalacia and Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Newborns and Relationship with Ventilator Care (Study of Ventilator Care as a Risk Factor of PVL and PV-IVH)
Hak Sung Lee, Sae Kyu Lee, Yeong Jin Kim, Sang Geel Lee
Department of Pediatrics, Taegu Fatima Hospital, Taegu, Korea
극소저출생체중아의 뇌실주위백질연화증과 중증뇌실출혈의 발생과 인공호흡기 치료와의 상관관계
이학성, 이세규, 김영진, 이상길
대구파티마병원 소아과
Correspondence: 
Sang Geel Lee, Email: sgleeped@korea.com
Abstract
Purpose
: It has been suggested that changes in cerebral blood flow by ventilator care could be a risk factor in periventricular leukomalacia(PVL) and severe periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage(PV-IVH). The study aims to assess the relationship between perinatal clinical events, including ventilator care, and the development of PVL and severe PV-IVH; especially, whether ventilator care could be causers of PVL and severe PV-IVH as an individual risk factor.
Methods
: Among 255 very low birth weight infants who survived in the Fatima neonatal intensive care unit from January 1999 to December 2003, 15 infants with PVL and eight infants with severe PV-IVH were classified as a study group, while 231 infants were enrolled as a control group. The analysis was performed retrospectively with medical records.
Results
: Twenty four infants were diagnosed with PVL or severe PV-IVH. Asphyxia, recurrent apnea, sepsis, acidosis and ventilator care were significantly increased in the PVL goup. Asphyxia, recurrent apnea, RDS, acidosis and ventilator care were significantly increased in the severe PV-IVH group.
Conclusion
: Infants with PVL or severe PV-IVH may have multiple perinatal risk factors including asphyxia, recurrent apnea, sepsis, acidosis, RDS and ventilator care. Because most patients with ventilator care have multiple perinatal risk factors, ventilator care does not cause PVL and severe PV- IVH independently. Therefore, incidences of PVL and severe PV-IVH can be decreased by not only gentle ventilation, but also more professional antenatal care.
Key Words: Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage , Periventricular leukomalacia , Gentle ventilation


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