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Rifampin Effects on Tuberculous Meningitis in Children.

Journal of the Korean Pediatric Society 1978;21(7):543-551.
Published online July 31, 1978.
Rifampin Effects on Tuberculous Meningitis in Children.
Kyong Sook Lee, Kyu Chung Park, Mi Ja Shin, Suk Chul Kang
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Korea.
소아 결핵성 뇌막염에 대한 Rifampin의 효과
이경숙, 박규정, 신미자, 강석철
서울적십자병원 소아과
Abstract
Fifty nine patients of tuverculous menigiis who were admitted to the Pediatric department of Seoul Red Cross Hospital during the period from March, 1976 to December 1977 were treated with rifampin in addition to isoniazid and streptomycin injection, and Compaired with 135 cases of tuberculous meningitis who were admitted during the period from January, 1971 to December, 1975. The contrast group was composed of 21 cases who obtained as folows. 1) Out of 59 patients givern rifampin, only 5 patients died resulting in lower motality rate (8.5%) whereas 20 patients died out of 135 cases given PAS regimen showing 14.8% of motality rate. 2) Seven cases on each stage of PAS regimen group and 10 cases of stage I, 9 cases of stage II and III of rifampin group were reviewed for the respects of defeveration, durratio of disappearance of meningeal irritation signs, improvements of conciousness and neurological defects and self feeding ability. It was very hard to conclude the superiority on one group because of the similarity of days needed for the improvement. However, superior results with rifampin regimen could be mentioned among the patients with second and third stage of tuberculous meningitis for the clinical improvements. 3) Serial examination of cerebrospinal fluids of the cases in 3 stage revealed no direct relationship either for the clinical improvements or the for ultimate outcome of the patients themselves. C. S. F. improvements were observed in average within one to three weeks. 4) Side effects of fifampin ; the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin at the time of of admission wrer all normal. Twenty-one cases out of 41 patients showed the impairment of liver function after the first to second week of treatment with the dosage of 15-20mg/kg/day. In 3 out of 21 cases, the drug had to be discontinued, owing to the futher elevation of SGOT and SGPT but in 18 out of 21 cases, liver function was gradually normalized within one to two weeks after the dosage of rifampin had been reduced down to 10mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of impairment of liver function on the follow-up evaluation from 4 to 10 months later. And there were no significant changes in Hb, Hct, platelet counts during the course of the therapy. The hepatitis, the well known side effects such as hemolytic anemia, skin rashes and G-I tract disturbance were not observed during the course of treatment. Bases on the above observations that rifampin reduced the motality and shortened the duration of clinical manifestation without the serious side effects except for transient hepatitis, rifampin plus isoniazid would seem to be preferred for the patients who are seen at the late stage of the disease. We know that the number of cases of this study is not enough to draw the definite conclusion of the superiority of rifampin, however, the of these prelininary observations seemed to cast a bright light for the futher trial and follow up observations.


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