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Studies on Physical Growth and Development of Korean Children From Birth to Five Years of Age

Journal of the Korean Pediatric Society 1962;5(4):197-226.
Published online December 31, 1962.
Studies on Physical Growth and Development of Korean Children From Birth to Five Years of Age
Sang Hyup Kim
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University, College of Medicine
韓國乳幼兒의 身體發育에 關한 硏究
金 相 協
서울大學校 醫科大學 小兒科學敎室
The importance of understanding the process of physical growth and development is well known by all pediatricians and scientists in the field of child health. The observation of some statistical studies about Korean children are carried out previously. However, since the social and economic conditions had been changed in past couple of decades so much, we feel that the studies have to be reconsidered. According to Tanner and Falkner, they pointed out that all children are growing and maturing earlier year by year. In addition, most of the past publications are concerned mainly to school children. Some varieties in different geographic areas are mentioned by Meredith and Bai. New normal growth standard values are paramount importance to evaluate children’s body status and process of growth and development by physicians and general scientists in the field of children’s health and other problems in Seoul area. 22,355 boys and girls (boys 11,400 girls 10,955) are obtained for present study during 1960 to 1962. These materials are collected in Well Baby Clinic of Seoul National University Hospital. Through this studies mean values and standard deviations in 4 items are taken; body length, weight, chest circumference and head circumference. Length- weight chart is made to present the relationship between length, weight, age and sex. To evaluate and mark the state of child nourishment, length, weight, chest and head circumference are divided into 5 groups respectively, and from these convenient chart (chart of distribution of length, weight, chest and head circumference by age) is made. The 5 groups mean “outof class"“upper” “middle” “lower” "and “poor” class. Middle class ranges 1/2 sjgma up and down from the mean value. From this middle class 1 sigma up and down. are called upper and lower class respectively. More than upper class js named as out of class and that of lower belongs to poor class. Rapidity of growth is evaluated by taking the increment of growth and rate of growth. The measurement is performed in 3 classes in all. Namely, newborn were measured within 24 hours after birth. In nursling (up to 12 months) in each month and in every 3 months thereafter. Children between 2 to 5 years old were measured in every 6 months. Since the growth rate is more characteristic during early life, the frequency of measurement is accordingly applied as stated above. During newborn period, body length in male is more longer than in female. This result lies between Kim and Paik’s. After 2〜3 months the difference in both sexes are more marked, 1 year afterward the difference is remarkable. Body weight of newborn male and female showed no difference. From 1 to 2 month the difference of male and female are noticed. From 4 to 5 month the difference became apparent. The value of newborn male is between the values of Yang-Lim-Ko, Paik and of Kim. Female newborn baby weight is above the value of Yang-Lim-Ko,Paik and of Kim. During the preschool age period, the author’s value of boys are between Paik and Kim's. Girls value are slightly lower than Kim and Paik's. However, the values are heavier than Japanese and lighter than American. Although newborn chest circumference reveals simiUr value with Kim and Japanese Kuriyama's, the value is lower than Yang-Lim-Ko's. Until 2~3 month no difference observed in two sexes. After this age, male growth is dominant. After 1 year of age, the difference of sexps becomes prominent and reveals more than 2 cm. This is slightly higher value than Japanese. Newborn head circumference reveals little difference between male and female. After 1 year of age the difference becomes more than 1 cm and dominant in male. As a whole the author’s values are slightly higher in comparison with the previous Korean chil- dren and Japanese children's data and lower that American. The increment of body length in both sexes are prominent up to 2 to 3 month of age in which period it reaches maximum peak of 4 cm in both sexes. After that the growth increment of length decreased gradually. The same trends are observed in body weight. Namely, maximum peak reveals in 1 to 2 month of age. After that the increment qf bqdy weight decreases gradually. These studies are the Korean normal pysical grpwth and development in Seoul area and are com pared with observations by Korean, Japanese and American. I hope that this study will help greatly to evaluate the physical growth and development of newborn through the age of 5 in Seoul area and summarize as follows: 1.The aim of the present investigation is to give standards of length, weight, head circumference and chest circumference in Korean children in Seoul area during the first 5 years of life,drived from the same material. 2.Means and standard deviations of length, weight, chest circumference and head circumference in relation to age and sex are given. (Table 2,3) 3.Body weight in relation to length, age and sex are given. (Table 4,5,6,7) 4.Distribution of length, weight, chest circumference and head circumference by age and sex are given. (Table 8,9,10,11) 5.In order to evaluate the status and processes of growth and development, an increment and rate of growth are given. (Table 12,13,14,15) 6. Although head circumference is remarkably smaller than that of American, length, weight and chest circumference reveal little difference in newborn period. In comparison with Japanese, length, weight and head circumference are bigger in Korean new- borns. But chest circumference is smaller. 7. As a whole, through nursling and preschool period, mean values of growth reveal bigger than Japanese but smaller than American.

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