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Incidence and Perinatal Risk Factors of Respiratory Distress Syndrome of Newborn

Journal of the Korean Pediatric Society 1994;37(8):1065-1077.
Published online August 15, 1994.
Incidence and Perinatal Risk Factors of Respiratory Distress Syndrome of Newborn
Yun Sil Chang, Beyong Il Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi, Chong Ku Yun
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
신생아 호흡곤란증후군의 발생빈도 및 위험인자
장윤실, 김병일, 최중환, 윤종구
서울대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실
Over a continuous 4-year period, from January 1989 till December 1992, 7,100 infants were born in Department of Obstetrics and admitted to Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Department of Pediatrics of Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Among them, 126 cases were diagnosed as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of newborn. The total incidence of RDS among all the newborns(inborn)was 1.77%. And the incidence of RDS related to birth weight was 81.82% in infants of 500~749g of birth weifht, 68.57% in infants of 750~999g of birth weight, 55.6% in infants of 1,000~1,249g of birth weight, 35.71% in infants of 1,250~1, 499g of birth weight, 16.67% in infants of 1,500~1,749g of birth weight, 9.82% in infants of 1,750~1,999g of virth weight, 1.00% in infants of 2,000~2,249g of birth weight, 1.29% in infants of 2,250~2, 499g of birth weight, and 0.08% in infants of more than 2,500g of birth weight. Cumulative incidence of RDS related to birth weight was 81.82%in infants under 750g of birth weight, 71.74%in infants under 1,000g of birth weight, 62.39%in infants under 1,250g of birth weight, 53.33% in infants under 1,500g of birth weight, 39.85% in infants under 1,750g of birth weight, 30.83% in infants under 2,000g of birth weight, 20.42% in infants under 2,250g of birth weight, and 13.70% in infants under 2,500g of birth weight. The incidence of RDS related to gestational age was 83.33%, in infants under 25 weeks of gestation, 78.57%in infants at 25~26 weeks of gestation, 67.31% in infants at 27~28 weeks of gestation, 56.41% in infants at 29~30 weeks of gestation, 16.47% in infants at 31~32 weeks of gestation, 4.74% in infants at 33~34 weeks of gestation, 1.15% in infants at 35~36 weeks of gestation, and 0.05% in infants at more than 37 weeks of gestation. Cumulative incidence of RDS related to gestational age was 83.33%under 25 weeks of gestation, 80.00% under 27 weeks of gestation, 70.83% under 29 weeks of gestation, 63.33% under 31 weeks of gestation, 46.38% under 33 weeks of gestation, 27.76% under 35 weeks of gestation, and 14.34% under 37 weeks of gestation. Perinatal risk factors related to the incidence of RDS were analyzed by the multiple logistic regression statistical method in 596 infants, who were born under 37 weeks of gestation and under 2,500 g of birth weight in Seoul National University Hospital. The risk of RDS rose with decreasing gestational age (odds ratio=1.76, 95% CI=1.57, 1.99), with decreasing 5 minute Apgar score (odds ratio=1.23, 95% CI=1.08, 1.40), while prolonged ruptrue of membranes of > 24 hours in the absence of maternal infection was highly protective (odds ratio=0.37, 95% CI=0.20, 0.70).
Key Words: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), Newborn, Incidence, Perinatal risk factor

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