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Influence of The Central Nervous System on Changes in Urine Volume

Journal of the Korean Pediatric Society 1962;5(2):103-128.
Published online April 30, 1962.
Influence of The Central Nervous System on Changes in Urine Volume
Hyung Ro Moon
department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University, College of Medicine
中權神經系의 尿量變動에 미치는 影響
文 例 魯
서울大學校 醫科大學 小兒科學敎室
There have been a number of experimental studies mcerning role of the central nervous sytem in metallism of electrolytes and water since Bernard first iscovered diuresis in the absence of glycosuria by metrating a cetain part of floor of the fourth ventricle. Nevertheless, not until present were definite studies jrformed which indicated the limbic system is integral the neural control of water-electrolyte balance. In this experiment, the author has studied urine )lume changes in response to osmotic stimulation of jrtain areas which have afferrent connections with le hypothalamus by nerve fibers. Male rabbits weighing 2 0 Kg. were well hydrated jfore each study by gavaging with 100 c.c. of 2 per nt sodium chloride solution initially and twice thereter at one hour interval to mantain a positive water ilance throughout each study. Urine was collected rough a catheter while the rabbit was placed on a lder. Osmotic stimuli were applied as 2% NaCl lution, isotonic saline or water in amount of 0.1 D. each using stereotaxic apparatus, The following bcortical areas were stimulated bilaterally: anteriord posterior hypothalamic area; midbrain; septal area; nygdala and hippocampus. The following results were obtained. 1)ANTERIOR HYOPTHALAMUS: Seven rabbits were included in this group. All of them gave antid- iuretic responses to stimulations with hypertonic saline. It could be repeated in one of them with the same stimulus. The duration of antidiuresis ranged from 25 minutes to 40 minutes. The rabbit that responded twice previously with hypertonic saline did not responded to isotonic saline. Four rabbits in this grup showed increase in diuresis when they were stimulated with water. The stimulations with isotonic saline resulted in no responses in all of the raabbits studied. 2)POSTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS: All but one of the five rabbits in this group resulted in antidiureis when they were stimulated with hypertonic saline. The response lasted for 25 minutes to 35 minutes. The stimulations with water and isotonic saline resulted in acceleration of diuresis and no response respectively. 3)MIDBRAIN: All of the six out of the nine rabbits in this group stimulated with hypertonic saline resulted in marked antidiuretic responses ranging from 20 minutes to 45 minutes. In the two of them, they responded in the same manner when the stimulus was repeatedly applied. On the other hand, when the mid- brain was stimulated with water in four rabbits caused acceleration in diuresis. However, none of the rabbits stimulated with isotonic saline showed response in the urine volume. 4) SEPTAL AREA: When this area was stimulated in the four rabbits with hypertonic saline, six trials in all caused antidiuresis ranging from 20 minutes to 50 minutes.There were no responses to the stimulations with isotonic saline while the water accelerated diuresis. 5)AMYGDALA: The five rabbits in this group stimulated with hypertonic saline resulted in antidiuresis for 35 minutes to 45 minutes. When the region was stimulated with water, it caused acceleration in diuresis. All of five rabbits stimulated with isotonic saline showed no response. 6)HIPPOCAMPUS: Total six rabbits were studied in this group. The hippocampus was stimulated in four rabbits with hypertonic saline at eight occations. There were no responses except for one which did result in antidiuresis when the same stimulus was applied agian. The rabbits stimulated with water or isotonic saline, neither of them showed responses. The above results point, then, to not only the anterior hyypothalamus but also the posterior hypothalamus, midbrain, septal area and amygdala as either primary or secondary osmoreceptor sites since these areas demonstrated clear responses to the osmotic stimulations.

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