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Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Updates in neonatal resuscitation: routine use of laryngeal masks as an alternative to face masks
Eun Song Song, Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(5):240-246.   Published online July 11, 2023
In neonatal resuscitation:
· Laryngeal masks are recommended when endotracheal intubation or positive-pressure ventilation fails.
· Laryngeal masks are useful even during chest compressions.
· Laryngeal masks aid neonates >34 weeks’ gestation and/or with a birth weight >2 kg.
· Main usage barriers include limited experience (81%), preference for endotracheal tubes (57%), and lack of awareness (56%).
· Second-generation laryngeal masks have a built-in esophageal drainage tube that prevents regurgitation into the glottis, and an orogastric tube can be inserted within the esophageal drainage tube to protect against gastric inflation.
Neonatal family-centered care: evidence and practice models
Juyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(4):171-177.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Concrete evidence exists of early parent-infant attachment supported by family-centered care (FCC) in the neonatal intensive care unit.
· FCC involves the parents’ presence and participation in the infant’s care and decision-making.
· A private and comfortable space should be provided. A single-family room is ideal; however, a quiet space with a recliner can be a good alternative.
· Care culture changes and staff training are required.
Original Article
Need for palliative care from birth to infancy in pediatric patients with neurological diseases
Raffaele Falsaperla, Silvia Marino, Carla Moscheo, Lucia Giovanna Tardino, Simona Domenica Marino, Concetta Sciuto, Piero Pavone, Giovanna Vitaliti, Federica Sullo, Martino Ruggieri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(8):350-356.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: What are the current palliative care protocols, palliative course, and implementable palliative care programs for hospitalized pediatric patients with neurological diseases in Italy?
Finding: We studied 34 newborns with nervous system diseases, all of whom had a poor prognosis.
Meaning: Despite current legislation in Italy, no palliative care network has been implemented. Given the vast number of patients with neurological conditions, standardized palliative care guidelines and protocols are required.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Predictive factors of death in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy receiving selective head cooling
Behnaz Basiri, Mohammadkazem Sabzehei, Mohammadmahdi sabahi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):180-187.   Published online August 27, 2020
Question: What is the most important factor that increases mortality in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who receive selective head cooling?
Finding: All cases of neonatal mortality were severe HIE (stage 3), and a severely abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and mortality were increased with the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation upon delivery.
Meaning: Advanced neonatal resuscitation affects HIE outcomes, and medical personnel should be prepared to provide the best intervention.
Effectiveness of various nonpharmacological analgesic methods in newborns
Pancham Kumar, Rakesh Sharma, Sukhdev Rathour, Sunidhi Karol, Mohit Karol
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):25-29.   Published online August 16, 2019
Question: Can nonpharmacological methods be used for neonatal pain management.
Finding: Nonpharmacological methods like Sucrose, breastfeeding etc have shown to significantly reduce the pain caused by intramuscular hepatitis B vaccination.
Meaning: Nonpharmacological methods are the safe and cheap potential modalities of analgesia which can be used during mild to moderate pain in newborns.
Review Article
Central line-associated bloodstream infections in neonates
Hye Jung Cho, Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):79-84.   Published online December 19, 2018
Newborn infants, including premature infants, are high-risk patients susceptible to various microorganisms. Catheter-related bloodstream infections are the most common type of nosocomial infections in this population. Regular education and training of medical staffs are most important as a preventive strategy for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Bundle approaches and the use of checklists during the insertion and maintenance of central...
Case Report
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung associated with congenital pulmonary airway malformation in a neonate
Juneyoug Koh, Euiseok Jung, Se Jin Jang, Dong Kwan Kim, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):30-34.   Published online January 22, 2018

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), previously known as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, is a rare developmental lung abnormality associated with rhabdomyosarcoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung. We report an unusual case of a 10-day-old male newborn with a left lower lobe pulmonary cyst who underwent lobectomy, which revealed type II CPAM complicated by multifocal mucinous adenocarcinoma. KRAS...

Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
The influencing factors on procalcitonin values in newborns with noninfectious conditions during the first week of life
Jueseong Lee, Yong Hyeon Bang, Eun Hee Lee, Byung Min Choi, Young Sook Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(1):10-16.   Published online January 16, 2017

Although procalcitonin (PCT) level is useful for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, PCT reliability is inconsistent because of the varied conditions encountered in neonatal intensive care units. This study aimed to investigate PCT levels and factors influencing increased PCT levelin newborns without bacterial infection during the first week of life.


In newborns hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2015, PCT levels...

Review Article
White matter injury following rotavirus infection in neonates: new aspects to a forgotten entity, 'fifth day fits'?
Jung Sook Yeom, Chan-Hoo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(7):285-291.   Published online July 31, 2016

That rotavirus infection can cause neurological symptoms in young children has been well established. However, it is surprising why rotavirus infection has been overlooked as a cause of neonatal seizures for many years, despite significant research interest in neonatal rotavirus infection. Neonates are the age group most vulnerable to seizures, which are typically attributed to a wide range of causes....

Original Article
Infantile Marfan syndrome in a Korean tertiary referral center
Yeon Jeong Seo, Ko-Eun Lee, Gi Beom Kim, Bo Sang Kwon, Eun Jung Bae, Chung Il Noh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(2):59-64.   Published online February 29, 2016

Infantile Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare congenital inheritable connective tissue disorder with poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular manifestations and overall prognosis of infantile MFS diagnosed in a tertiary referral center in Korea.


Eight patients diagnosed with infantile MFS between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively evaluated.


Their median age at the time of diagnosis was 2.5 months (range,...

Review Article
Evidence for adverse effect of perinatal glucocorticoid use on the developing brain
Young Pyo Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(3):101-109.   Published online March 31, 2014

The use of glucocorticoids (GCs) in the perinatal period is suspected of being associated with adverse effects on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm infants. Repeated administration of antenatal GCs to mothers at risk of preterm birth may adversely affect fetal growth and head circumference. Fetal exposure to excess GCs during critical periods of brain development may profoundly modify the limbic...

Case Report
A case of mucolipidosis II presenting with prenatal skeletal dysplasia and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism at birth
Ju Sun Heo, Ka Young Choi, Se Hyoung Sohn, Curie Kim, Yoon Joo Kim, Seung Han Shin, Jae Myung Lee, Juyoung Lee, Jin A Sohn, Byung Chan Lim, Jin A Lee, Chang Won Choi, Ee-Kyung Kim, Han-Suk Kim, Beyong Il Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(11):438-444.   Published online November 23, 2012

Mucolipidosis II (ML II) or inclusion cell disease (I-cell disease) is a rarely occurring autosomal recessive lysosomal enzyme-targeting disease. This disease is usually found to occur in individuals aged between 6 and 12 months, with a clinical phenotype resembling that of Hurler syndrome and radiological findings resembling those of dysostosis multiplex. However, we encountered a rare case of an infant...

Original Article
Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia) in Korea
Byung-Ho Kang, Joo-Young Moon, Sung-Hoon Chung, Yong-Sung Choi, Kyung-Suk Lee, Ji-Young Chang, Chong-Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(8):280-285.   Published online August 23, 2012

The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs) over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010.


We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960's to 1990's) and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010). The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal...

Case Report
A Case of Hypernatremic Dehydration in an Exclusively Breast-Fed Newborn Infant
Kyung Pil Park, Jin Kyung Kim, Heng Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(6):790-795.   Published online June 15, 2002
Sporadic reports of hypernatremic dehydration in breastfed newborn infants have appeared in medical literature for at least 3 decades. We report the first case of hypernatremic dehydration resulting from inadequate breast-feeding in Korea. A 14-day old baby, born to a mentally retarded mother, was transferred to our hospital with a body weight loss of 460 g since birth(17%) and a...
Original Article
Oscillometric Blood Pressure of Upper and Lower Extremities and Aortic Blood Flow Velocity in Neonates
Sang Young Bae, Hae Soon Kim, Se Jung Sohn, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(4):484-488.   Published online April 15, 2000
Purpose : We studied the blood pressure difference between the upper and lower extremities in healthy newborn infants and the effect of isthmic narrowing of the aorta on making a possible difference. Methods : The blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric blood pressure device from four extremities of 62 healthy infants aged 1-15 days. A Doppler echocardiography was performed for...
Surfactant Protein SP-A, B, and C: Purification and Biochemical Characterization
Chong-Woo Bae, Yong-Mook Choi, Joo Hyun Kang, Kil Lyong Kim, Kyung Soo Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(2):218-229.   Published online February 15, 1996
Purpose : Several kinds of exogenous pulmonary surfactants (SF), either synthetic or animalderived, are being used for the replacement therapy in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of newborn, especially in premature infants, and improved the neonatal mortality and morbidity. Because synthetic preparations are lack of surfactant protein (SP) and animal-derived preparations cause immunogenecity of heterogenous SP, there have been great necessity for the development of next...
Clinical and Ultrasonographic Study on Prenatal Brain Damage in Newborn Infants
Kook In Park, Dong Gwan Han, Ran Namgung, Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(10):1364-1375.   Published online October 15, 1994
To determine the incidence of prenatal brain damage, and evaluate the clinical and neurosonographical characteristics, we prospectively examined 508 newborn infants with intracranial ultrasound within the first day of life who admitted to the NICU of Severance Hospital from June 1990 to January 1992 and reviewed maternal or neonatal medical records. We found 12 cases(2.4%) of fetal brain...
Longitudinal Change of Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Neonates with Perinatal Asphyxia and Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy with Doppler Technique
Kook In Park, Dong Kwan Han, Joon Soo Lee, Ran Namgung, Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(9):1196-1204.   Published online September 15, 1994
Fifty-three full-term, preterm, term-SGA newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and 16 full-term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were studied with color Doppler songraphy to assess the postnatal change of the cerebral blood flow velocity(CBFV) longitudinally. A control group of 81 healthy infants also had CBFV recordings during the 1st week of life. Pourcelot Resistance index(PI) and area under the velocity curve(AUVC)...
Children with Delayed Speech Development
Sang Kee Park, Ho Sung Yoo, Yeong Bong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1992;35(9):1236-1242.   Published online September 15, 1992
The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and the lipid peroxidation were assayed in erythroctyes from the cord blood of 25 fullterm newborn infants and their maternal blood abtained immediatedly after normal delivery. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activites in cor blood erythroctytes were significantly lower when compared with their mothers, but glutathione peroxidase activities were not significantly lower....
Study on the Temperature Measurement in the Newborn Infants.
Eun Saing Jee, Young Pyo Chang, Jung Hwan Choi, Chong Ku Yun, Yong Ran Kim, Myoung Sook Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(12):1632-1636.   Published online December 31, 1989
We measured body temperatures and stabilization times of 100 term and 52 preterm infants at four sites. The sites were core, aural, rectal and axilla in order of degree of temperature. There was significant difference between term and preterm infants (term infant higher, p<0.001). Mean difference between axillary and rectal temperatures was 0.501C(rectal higher). Mean difference between rectal and core temperatures was 0.10lC(core higher)....
A Study on Serum Ca, P, Mg, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitionin, and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Normal Newborn and Low Birth Weight Infants.
In Bock Lee, Chang Soo Ra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1987;30(6):613-624.   Published online June 30, 1987
Early neonatal hypocalcemia occurs within the first few days of life, with the lowest concentrations of serum calcium being reached at 24 to 48 hours of age. An infant can be considered to be hypocalcemic when serum calcium concentrations are below 7 mg/dl or when ionized calcium concentrations are below 3 to 3.5 mg/dl. The most commonly encountered causes of neonatal hypocalcemia are prematurity,...
A Study of Blood Pressure Measurement in Newborn Infants.
Yoon Deok Kim, Joong Whan Choi, Chong Ku Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(8):819-829.   Published online August 31, 1986
The inability to detect Korotkoff sounds in infants have in the past made it difficult for most pediatricians to measure blood pressures by indirect conventional sphygmomanometry. Now, however, Korotkoff sounds, or the mechanical events which produce them, can be sensed with an ultrasonic Doppler device. The author measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a Doppler arteriokinetog raphic instrument during 6...
A Study on Plasma Antidiuretic Hormone and Serum Sodium Levels of Cord Blood in the Newborn Infants.
Choon Ho Park, Chang Soo Ra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(7):748-757.   Published online July 31, 1986
The authors studied the plasma antidiuretic hormone levels of cord blood in 40 cases of newborn infants and also studied the serum sodium levels of cord blood in 40 cases of newborn infants. For the purpose of analysis, the study subjects were divided into four group; 1st group of 17 cases of vaginal delivery infants with fetal distress, 2nd group...
A Study on Serum Immuoglobulins and Complements in Newborn Infants.
Song Soo Moon, Chang Soo Ra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(1):58-71.   Published online January 31, 1986
The author investigated serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and complements (C3and C4) of cord blood in 29 cases of normal fullterm infants, 14 cases of low birth weight infants (8 cases of premature infants) and 43 cases of their mothers at delivery. Serum immunoglobulin and complement levels were measured by the single radial immuno diffusion method (NISSUI, Japan). The...
A study on Glucose Metabolism in Newborn Infants.
Keun Chul Myung, Chang Soo Ra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1985;28(12):1167-1176.   Published online December 31, 1985
Glucose metabolism in newborn infants has not been clearly defined. A thorough understanding of the physiology of glucose metabolism between mother and newborn infants is necessary in the evaluation of the newborn infant with hypoglycemia. Author studied the serum glucose, insulin, cyclic AMP and glucagon levels in 27 pairs of cord blood in newborn infant and maternal blood at paturition....
A Study on Calcium Metabolism in Newborn Infants.
Jin Heon Kim, Chang Soo Ra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1985;28(10):967-976.   Published online October 31, 1985
A thorough understanding of calcium homeostasis and metabolism in newborn infants is necessary in the evaluation of any newborn infant with hypocalcemia. Author studied the levels of urinary calcium and phosphorus during the 48 hours after birth, and also studied before and after feeding during the 24 hours after birth in 19 normal term infants. And serum calcium, phosphorus, parathormone,...
A Study on Serum Creatinine and BUN Levels in Newborn Infants.
Shin Chung Jee, Chang Soo Ra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1985;28(8):741-750.   Published online August 31, 1985
The concept of renal function in the neonate has been that the developing kidney is immature and that glomerular and tubular functions are low for body size as compared with the adult. Authors determined the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels of cord blood in 57 newborn infants(42 normal full-term and 15 premature infants) with gestational age of...
A Study on Serum Glucose, Insulin, and hGH Levels of Cord Blood in Newborn.
Cheol Won Park, Chang Soo Ra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1984;27(10):945-957.   Published online October 31, 1984
We have studied the serum glucose, insulin and hGH levels of cord blood in newborn infants(38 cases) and the serum glucose, insulin and hGH levels of maternal blood at parturition (38 cases). For the purpose of analysis, the study objects were divided into two groups: normal infant group (32 cases) and premature infant group (6 cases). Serum glucose levels were...
A Study on Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Levels in Newborn Infants.
Sang Ki Min
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1984;27(3):224-228.   Published online March 31, 1984
The levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured in 32 newborn infants (Under 24 hours of age), who have no evidence of infection and hyperbilirubinemia (Total bilirubin: Below 6 mg/ml.). 2~3 ml of blood was sampled from femoral puncture and serum AFP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (Amersham RIA Kit: Amersham International Co. U.K.). The results were summarized as follows: 1) There...
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