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Original Article
Influence of proton pump inhibitor therapy on intestinal inflammation assessed by fecal calprotectin in pediatric patients
Su Yeong Kim, Na Mi Lee, Sin Weon Yun, Soo Ahn Chae, In Seok Lim, Eung Sang Choi, Dae Yong Yi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(10):400-404.   Published online July 3, 2019
Background: An increase in the numbers of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms has recently been observed.
Purpose: To investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on intestinal inflammation in children and adolescents as confirmed by clinical manifestations and objectively assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC) level measurement. Methods: Consecutive children (aged 3–18 years) who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms and were treated with...
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli ST131 in urinary tract infections in children
Ki Wook Yun, Mi-Kyung Lee, Wonyong Kim, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):221-226.   Published online July 31, 2017

Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131, a multidrug-resistant clone causing extraintestinal infections, has rapidly become prevalent worldwide. However, the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric infections are poorly understood. We aimed to explore the characteristics of ST131 Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infections.


We examined 114 uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates from children hospitalized at Chung-Ang University...

Usefulness of interferon-γ release assay for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in young children
Ki Wook Yun, Young Kwang Kim, Hae Ryun Kim, Mi Kyung Lee, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(6):256-261.   Published online June 30, 2016

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in young children may progress to severe active tuberculosis (TB) disease and serve as a reservoir for future transmission of TB disease. There are limited data on interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) performance in young children, which our research aims to address by investigating the usefulness of IGRA for the diagnosis of LTBI.


We performed a tuberculin skin...

Molecular typing of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infection
Ki Wook Yun, Do Soo Kim, Wonyong Kim, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):20-27.   Published online January 31, 2015

We investigated the molecular types of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) by using conventional phylogrouping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and fimH genotyping.


Samples of patients younger than 18 years of age were collected from the Chung-Ang University Hospital over 2 years. Conventional phylogenetic grouping for UPEC strains was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial strain sequence types (STs) were classified on...

Correlation between glomerular filtration rate and urinary N acetyl-beta-D glucosaminidase in children with persistent proteinuria in chronic glomerular disease
Jeong Deok Hong, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(4):136-142.   Published online April 30, 2012

Urinary excretion of N acetyl-beta-D glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-M) was increased in the presence of proximal tubular damage. Based on these urinary materials, we investigated the ability of expecting renal function in chronic glomerular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) urinary NAG, and urinary β2-M.


We evaluated 52 children with chronic kidney disease...

Clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 in Kawasaki disease
Ki Wook Yun, Sin Weon Sin, Jung Ju Lee, Soo Ahn Chae, In Seok Lim, Eung Sang Choi, Byoung Hoon Yoo, Mi-Kyung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(4):510-518.   Published online April 15, 2010
Purpose : Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, a leading cause of pediatric acquired heart disease. Histopathological findings of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in KD indicate destruction of the coronary artery wall with diffuse vasculitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) might play central roles in this process. Special attention to MMP-9 has recently been emerging....
Comparison of various methods of glomerular filtration rate measurements in children
Na Mi Lee, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(9):999-1004.   Published online September 15, 2009

Purpose:Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a fundamental parameter in assessing renal function and predicting the progression of chronic renal disease. Because the use of serum creatinine has several disadvantages, many studies have investigated the use of cystatin C for estimating GFR. We compared creatinine clearance and GFR with formulas using serum creatinine and cystatin C. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 211 patients...
Factors affecting the contamination of bag urine culture in febrile children under two years
Wook Hyun Choi, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(3):346-350.   Published online March 15, 2009
Purpose : Since children under two years with suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs) cannot control urination, urine cultures in such children are usually performed via urine bags. This method is noninvasive but has a high contamination rate. We studied the contamination rate of bag urine culture in diagnosing UTI in infants under two years and the factors responsible for contamination. Methods...
Epidemiologic and clinical features in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection caused by human metapneumovirus in 2006-2007
Gwi Ok Park, Ji Hyun Kim, Jae Hee Lee, Jung Ju Lee, Sin Weon Yun, In Seok Lim, Dong Keun Lee, Eung Sang Choi, Byoung Hoon Yoo,, Mi Kyung Lee, Soo Ahn Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(3):330-338.   Published online March 15, 2009
Purpose : The causes of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) are mostly attributable to viral infection, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), influenza virus A/B (IFV A/B), or adenovirus (ADV). Several Korean studies reported human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as a common pathogen of ALRTI. However, studies on seasonal distribution and clinical differences relative to other viruses are insufficient,...
Case Report
A case of herpes zoster in a 4-month-old infant
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Ju Lee, Sin Weon Yun, Soo Ahn Chae, In Seok Lim, Dong Keun Lee, Eung Sang Choi, Byoung Hoon Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(12):1368-1371.   Published online December 15, 2008
Herpes zoster in infancy is very rare but can be developed following intrauterine or postnatal exposure to varicella zoster virus. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 4-month-old male infant. He had no prior history of primary varicella or varicella vaccination. His mother had no history of varicella infection and no contact history with varicella during pregnancy. He...
Original Article
Clinical significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in Kawasaki disease
Ho Seok Lee, Sin Weon Yun, Young Soo Jung, Soo Ahn Chae, In Seok Lim, Dong Keun Lee, Eung Sang Choi, Byung Hoon Yoo, Mi Kyung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(10):995-1004.   Published online October 15, 2007
Purpose : Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis, leading cause of pediatric acquired heart disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has functions as vascular permeability factor, plays an important role in coronary artery lesion (CAL). We studied the clinical significance of serum VEGF in Kawasaki disease. Methods : Kawasaki group was 49 patients, and control group was 15 patients. Diagnosis followed...
Analysis of urine β2-microglobulin in pediatric renal disease
Dong Woon Kim, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(4):369-375.   Published online April 15, 2007
Purpose : There have been numerous researches on urine β2-microglobulin (β2-M) concerned with primary nephrotic syndrome and other glomerular diseases, but not much has been done in relation to pediatric age groups. Thus, our hospital decided to study the relations between the analysis of the test results we have conducted on pediatric patients and renal functions. Methods : Retrospective data...
Therapeutic Effect of Anti-Rotavirus Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin(IgY) on Diarrhea by Infection of Rotavirus
In Seok Lim, Ho Seok Lee, Wonyong Kim, Eung Sang Choi, Dong Hyuk Jung, Hoo Kil Jung, Sung Seob Yun, Ho Nam Chun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(12):1354-1361.   Published online December 15, 2005
Purpose : Rotavirus is an enteric pathogen that affects millions of children globally each year. But no specific therapy is available for the management of rotavirus diarrhea. Due to the clear need to define improved modality for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea, we evaluated the efficacy of anti- rotavirus IgY in the treatment of infants and children with gastroenteritis. Methods : First,...
Relationship between the Body Fat Mass Measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis(BIA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA), and by the Indices of Insulin Sensitivity
In Seok Lim, Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(8):857-864.   Published online August 15, 2005
Purpose : The objectives of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the indices of insulin sensitivity using fasting glucose and insulin level, and the body fat mass measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA), and to determine the clinical usefulness of insulin sensitivity indices when obese children were followed up. Methods : In this study, 28...
A Study for Accuracy and Usefulness of Tympanic Membrane and Forehead Thermometers
Ki Wook Yun, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(8):820-825.   Published online August 15, 2005
Purpose : The presence and degree of fever in children is a useful indicator of illness. This project aimed to assess the accuracy and usefulness of infrared tympanic membrane(TM) & forehead feverscan thermometers for measuring children's temperatures. Methods : Data were obtained from 1,050 children with a median age of 4.5 years. They visited the pediatric clinics at Chung-Ang University Yongsan...
Clinical Lecture
About the Reformed Medical Terms
In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(7):716-718.   Published online July 15, 2004
Concerning our medical history, the importance of medical terms has been neglected for a long time. In addition, medical terminologies are unaccustomed to the patients including the public. The separation of communications between the public and medical participants has been enlarged more and more. The importance of terms which can be easily recognized, comfortable to the ear, and familiar to...
Original Article
Correlation of Measurements for Body Fat in Obese Children
Jong Hoon Kim, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(5):485-490.   Published online May 15, 2004
Purpose : Measurement of body fat in obese children is useful not only in evaluating health hazard but also in establishing standards of treatment and evaluating the effectiveness of treatment. In the field of clinical and laboratory study, there are various methods with different reliability, propriety, convenience, and expenses. However, the practical value of these studies is limited in Korea,...
Case Report
A Case of Teratocarcinoma with Central Diabetes Insipidus
Jong Hoon Kim, In Seok Lim, Eung Sang Choi, Byoung Hoon Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(4):453-457.   Published online April 15, 2004
Central diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that can result as a consequence of diverse etiologies, including malformations, autoimmune, infiltrative(e.g. neoplastic or histiocytosis) or traumatic processes, as well as mutations in the gene encoding arginine vasopressin. Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus is a diagnosis of exclusion, one that has been made less frequently through the decades. Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus in...
A Case of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Adrenal Gland
Sun Pil Jung, Chong Gwon Oh, In Seok Lim, Dong Keun Lee, Byoung Hoon Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(12):1459-1462.   Published online December 15, 2001
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors(PNETs) are a group of small round cell tumors that may arise in the central or peripheral nervous system. In the extracranial location, these neoplasms may occur anywhere and at any age group, but most likely in the bone and soft tissue of children and young adults. The incidence of adrenal gland involvement is very rare. This tumor...
Original Article
Factors Predictive of Response to Interferon-α Therapy in Children with Chronic Hepatitis B
Hong Kwon Kim, Bo Hwa Choi, Kyung Mo Kim, Kyung Hoon Kang, In Seok Lim, Eung Sang Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(4):514-519.   Published online April 15, 2000
Purpose : The efficacy and safety of interferon-alpha(IFN-α) therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B(CHB) is similar to that of adults. However, little information is available about the predictive factors of response to this therapy in children. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors for responsiveness to IFN-α therapy in children with CHB. Methods : The basal...
Clinical Significance of Serum ECP in Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia
Young Ghil Rah, Dong Keun Lee, In Seok Lim, Eung Sang Choi, Soo Ahn Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(5):672-678.   Published online May 15, 1999
Purpose : Allergic inflammation of the lower respiratory tract is a characteristic clinical feature in asthma patients, in which eosinophils play an important role. The activity of eosinophil may be determined by measuring the level of eosinophil cationic protein(ECP) in sputum or serum as a potential marker of the inflammatory severity. Methods : We measured the serum concentrations of ECP...
Interaction of the mec Regulator Genes in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
Young Choi, In Seok Lim, Tae Sub Shim, Mi Kyung Lee, Ae Ja Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(9):1224-1233.   Published online September 15, 1998
Purpose : Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP 2a encoded by mecA is closely related to methicillin resistance in staphylococci, and the expression of PBP 2a is controlled by regulator elements encoded by mecR1 and mecI. Deletion or mutation which occurred in mecI is considered to be associated with constitutive production of PBP 2a. We investigated the distribution of mec regulator genes...
Prediction of Steroid Responsiveness in the Primary Nephrotic Syndrome Using Urinary β2-Microglobulin Level and N-Acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase Activity
Kwang In Lee, In Seok Lim, Eung Sang Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(9):1285-1292.   Published online September 15, 1997
Purpose : Considering that renal biopsy is not routinely indicated in nephrotic syndrome in children and the risk of the procedure, we studied that it is possible to predict steroid responsiveness in nephrotic syndrome and the difference in responsivenss is related with the histopathologic type using urinary β2-microglobulin and N-Acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase activity as a safe and noninvasive method. Methods : We measured serum creatinine, albumin, cholesterol...
Case Report
A Case of Idiopathic Long QT Syndrome with 2:1 Atrioventricular Block
Kwang In Lee, Chul Ha Kim, In Seok Lim, Dong Keun Lee, Byoung Hoon Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(12):1701-1705.   Published online December 15, 1995
The idiopathic long QT syndrome is a very rare disorder in which affected individuals have an unusual electrocardiographic repolarization abnormality (QT prolongation) and a propensity to syncope and fatal ventricular arrhythmia. Since Jervell and Lange-Nielsen first described this syndrome in 1957, progression has been made in the pathophysiology and in the treatment. Sinus bradycardia may be associated with this syndrome sometimes,...
Pseudoaneurysm after Renal Biopsy; Angigraphic Diagnosis and Treatment by Superselective Embolization
Sin Weon Yun, Keun Seop Jung, In Seok Lim, Chul Ha Kim, Dong Keun Lee, Byeong Heun You, Hyung Jin Shim, Young Ku Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(3):417-421.   Published online March 15, 1995
The use of superselective embolization was assessed as a treatment for bleeding from arteriovenous fistulas and pseudoaneurysm after renal biopsy procedure. But unless it is sufficiently selective, the procedure results in loss of significant amount of renal parenchyme. We experienced one case of renal arterial pseudoaneurysm, which happened at 5days after percutaneous renal biopsy. Diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was made by...
A Case of Nasopharyngeal Teratoma Showing Upper Airway Obstruction
Jeong Ho Jeon, In Seok Lim, Chul Hwa Kim, Byeng Hoon Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(4):560-564.   Published online April 15, 1994
Neoplasms of the nasophrynx are rare in neonates and infants. The most common nasopharyngeal tumor encountered in this age group is teratoma-neoplasm containing multiple heterotopic tissues. Four histologic types of nasopharyngeal teratoma occur-dermoid, teratoid, true teratoma, epignathing of which dermoid is most frequently seen. We have experienced a case of nasopharyngeal teratoma in a female neonate with signs and symptoms of...
Original Article
Clinical analysis of Serum and Urine N-Acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase (NAG) in Renal Disease
Yo Han Chung, In Seok Lim, Chul Ha Kim, Byoung Hoon Yoo, Tae Sub Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(3):383-389.   Published online March 15, 1994
Recently, NAG activity has gained increasing importance as an aid in the diagnosis of renoparenchymal diseases. Elevation of urine NAG activity has been found to be an indicator of renoparenchymal diseases. To evaluate the diagnostic value of the NAG activity test in the renal disease, we carried out clinical study on 31 cases of renal disease patients who had been...
Case Report
A Case of Roberts Syndrome
Young Choi, Yo Han Chung, In Seok Lim, Chul Ha Kim, Dong Keun Lee, Seong Nam Kim, Sang Yong Song, Je Geun Chi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(10):1447-1451.   Published online October 15, 1993
Roberts syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder accompanied by limb defects, craniofacial abnormalities, pre-and postnatal growth retardation. Patients with Roberts syndrome have characteristic premature separation of heterochromatin of many chromosomes and abnormalties in celldivision cycle. We have experienced a case of Roberts syndrome in an immature neonate. The patients showed characteristic clinical features of multiple encephaloceles. Severe facial mid-line clefts, and...
A Case of Fanconi Syndrome
Young Woon Lee, In Seok Lim, Chul Ha Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(5):737-442.   Published online May 15, 1993
Fanconi syndrome is a complex of renal tubular dysfunction defined by glycosuria without diabetes, generalized aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, bicarbonaturia, uric aciduria, and renal tubular acidosis. It is often associated with hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, rickets and osteomalacia. We have experienced one case of Fanconi syndrome with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. The patient was a 4 year and boy and his chief complaints were polyruia, polydipsia,...
Original Article
A case of malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease).
Sung Ku Lee, In Seok Lim, Chul Ha Kim, Dong Keun Lee, Eung Sang Choi, Byoung Hoon Yoo, Gae Yong Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1991;34(12):1724-1729.   Published online December 31, 1991
Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos’ disease) is characterized by porcelain-white skin lesions. It has unknown etiology and bad prognosis. Death usually occurs from multiple intestinal perforations weeks to years after onset. We experienced a case of Degos’ disease in a 12-year-old male patient who had porcelain white papules on face, trunk and extremities. Histopathologic studies showed broad epidermal necrobiosis with thrombotic arteriolar occlusion. A brief review of...
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