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Original Article
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between small for gestational age and risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Zahra Asali, Mahdieh Seyedi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):538-542.   Published online January 28, 2021
• The relationship between small for gestational age (SGA) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and remains conflicting.
• We showed based on odds ratio reports in epidemiological studies that SGA can increase the risk of ASD and SGA is a risk factor for ASD.
• The association between SGA and the risk of ASD has further momentum to the current public health emphasis on appropriate prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Iron status in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants at birth
Hyeon A Kim, Sook-Hyun Park, Eun Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):102-107.   Published online October 24, 2018

Purpose: This study compared the iron statuses of small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants at birth. Methods: The clinical data of 904 newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were reviewed. Blood samples were drawn from the infants within 24 hours after birth. Serum ferritin level was used as a marker of total...
TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) screening of small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restricted neonates: efficacy study in a single institute in Korea
Mi Hae Chung, Chan Ok Shin, Juyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):114-120.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

Routine screening for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (TORCH) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates has become a common practice. However, the incidence of TORCH varies across countries, and the cost of TORCH testing may be disadvantageous compared to disease-specific screening. To evaluate the efficacy of TORCH screening, the medical charts...

Comparison of postnatal catch-up growth according to definitions of small for gestational age infants
Jisun Huh, Ji Yoon Kwon, Hye Ryun Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Young-Jun Rhie, Byung Min Choi, Kee-Hyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):71-77.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

Small for gestational age (SGA) is confusingly defined as birth weight (BW) either below 3rd percentile or 10th percentile for infants. This study aimed to compare postnatal catch-up growth between SGA groups according to different definitions.

Methods

Data of 129 infants born with BW below the 10th percentile and admitted to Korea University Anam Hospital and Ansan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Height...

Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants
Joon-Sik Park, Jungho Han, Jeong Eun Shin, Soon Min Lee, Ho Seon Eun, Min-Soo Park, Kook-In Park, Ran Namgung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(3):64-69.   Published online March 27, 2017
Purpose

The goal of nutritional support for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from birth to term is to match the in utero growth rates; however, this is rarely achieved.

Methods

We evaluated postdischarge growth patterns and growth failure in 81 Korean VLBW infants through a retrospective study. Weight and height were measured and calculated based on age percentile distribution every 3 months until age 24...

Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Behavioral and intelligence outcome in 8- to 16-year-old born small for gestational age
Kyung Hee Yi, Yoon Young Yi, Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(10):414-420.   Published online October 17, 2016
Purpose

We investigated behavioral problems, attention problems, and cognitive function in children and adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA).

Methods

Forty-six SGA children born at term and 46 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) children born at term were compared. Psychiatric symptoms were examined with reference to the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist, Korean-Youth Self Report, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Cognitive...

Review Article
Endocrinology
Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age
Won Kyoung Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):1-7.   Published online January 22, 2016

Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life....

Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age
Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(9):379-383.   Published online September 30, 2014

Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve...

Original Article
Outcomes of small for gestational age micropremies depending on how young or how small they are
Hee Joon Yu, Eun Sun Kim, Jin Kyu Kim, Hye Soo Yoo, So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(6):246-252.   Published online June 30, 2011
Purpose

The outcomes of small for gestational age (SGA) infants especially in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) are controversial. This study evaluated the mortality and morbidity of ELBWIs, focusing on whether or not they were also SGA.

Methods

The medical records of 415 ELBWIs (birth weight <1,000 g), who were inborn and admitted to the Samsung Medical Center neonatal intensive care unit...

Catch up growth in children born small for gestational age by corrected growth curve
Myung Ki Jung, Ji Eun Song, Seung Yang, Il Tae Hwang, Hae Ran Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(9):984-990.   Published online September 15, 2009

Purpose:Being small for gestational age (SGA) is a risk factor of short stature in children. Genetic background such as mid-parental height (MPH) is known to influence growth of children born SGA. We studied the relationship between growth of children born SGA and MPH and studied the effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3)...
Review Article
Consequences of being born small for gestational age : More than being small
Eun-Gyong Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):152-158.   Published online February 15, 2009
Reduced fetal growth is independently associated with increased risk of health problems in later life, particularly type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Insulin resistance appears to be a key component underlying these metabolic complications. It is suggested that detrimental fetal environment may program insulin resistance syndrome. An insulin-resistant genotype may also result in both low birth weight and insulin resistance...
Growth and sex differentiation of children born small for gestational age
Se Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):142-151.   Published online February 15, 2009
The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births is frequent, accounting for 2.3% to 8% of all live births. Several childhood and adult diseases are related to early postnatal growth and birth size, and 10% of children born SGA may have a short stature throughout postnatal life. Additionally, they may have abnormal growth hormone (GH)-insulin like growth factor axis,...
The present condition of Korean children born small for gestational age
Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):137-141.   Published online February 15, 2009
Depending on the definition used, between 3% and 10% of live neonates are small for gestational age (SGA). The definition of SGA requires the following: (1) accurate knowledge of gestational age; (2) accurate measurements at birth of weight, length, and head circumference; (3) a cutoff, which has been variably set at the 10th percentile, 3rd percentile, or at less than...
Original Article
Quantification of endothelin-1 in human umbilical venous endothelial cell culture supernatants of small for gestational age and preeclampsia neonates
Won Kyoung Cho, So Young Kim, Chung Sik Chun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(12):1194-1199.   Published online December 15, 2007
Purpose : It was generally accepted now a days that the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA), intrauterine growth retardation and fetal origin of adult diseases were related with a endothelial cell dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to know the relation of such diseases by assessing the level of endothelin-1. Methods : SGA babies, newborns of...
Factors influencing birth weight premature infants
Ji A Aum, Hee Jin Jung, Jae Won Huh, Su Young Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(10):954-958.   Published online October 15, 2007
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing premature infants who are small for their gestational ago. Methods : The medical records of 1,010 premature infants of 26 to 35 weeks of gestational age born at Il-Sin Christian Hospital, Busan from January 2000 to August 2006 were reviewed. We collected data on gestational age, birth weight, infant...
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