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Review Article
Breastfeeding and vitamin D
Ju Sun Heo, Young Min Ahn, Ai-Rhan Ellen Kim, Son Moon Shin
Received April 12, 2021  Accepted November 15, 2021  
The recent re-emergence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and rickets among breastfed infants without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation has been reported worldwide. Breastfed infants are particularly vulnerable to VDD because of the low vitamin D content of breast milk, restricted sunlight exposure, increased pollution, and limited natural dietary sources of vitamin D. The prevalence of VDD in...
General Pediatrics
A new perspective on cholesterol in pediatric health: association of vitamin D metabolism, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems
Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):65-72.   Published online December 9, 2021
∙ Pediatric dyslipidemia is associated with several health problems besides cardiovascular diseases.
∙ There is a direct association between pediatric dyslipidemia and low serum vitamin D levels, asthma, and mental health problems regardless of body mass index.
∙ More large-scale nationally representative studies are needed to establish the appropriate cutoff points for the definition of dyslipidemia that is a prerequisite for further epidemiological studies in the Korean pediatric population.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Association between vitamin D level at birth and respiratory morbidities in very-low-birth-weight infants
Ian Kim, Sung Shin Kim, Jee In Song, Seock Hwa Yoon, Ga Young Park, Yong-Wha Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):166-172.   Published online October 24, 2018

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate vitamin D status at birth in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs: <1,500 g) and to determine the association between vitamin D level and respiratory morbidity. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital between November 2013 and November 2017. We collected blood samples and data on respiratory morbidity from 230 VLBWIs on the first...
Infection
Association between vitamin D and urinary tract infection in children
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Sara Safari, Reza Dalirani, Amir Javadi, Shiva Esmaeily
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):90-94.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

The present study aimed to determine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children.

Methods

In this case-control study, 70 children with UTI (case group) were compared with 70 healthy children (control group) in terms of serum 25(OH)D levels. The children were between 1 month and 12 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Effects of cord blood vitamin D levels on the risk of neonatal sepsis in premature infants
Birgul Say, Nurdan Uras, Suzan Sahin, Halil Degirmencioglu, Serife Suna Oguz, Fuat Emre Canpolat
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):248-253.   Published online August 14, 2017
Purpose

Vitamin D plays a key role in immune function. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of infections, and low levels of circulating vitamin D are strongly associated with infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of low vitamin D levels in cord blood on neonatal sepsis in preterm infants.

Methods

One hundred seventeen premature...

Cardiology
Relationship between vitamin D levels and intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in Kawasaki disease
Jae Sung Jun, Young Kwon Jung, Dong Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):216-220.   Published online July 31, 2017
Purpose

Vitamin D is associated with various pathological conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D and Kawasaki disease (KD).

Methods

We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with KD between February 2013 and March 2016 in Daegu Fatima Hospital. Study participants were grouped according to vitamin D serum concentration. Group 1 included...

Endocrinology
The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone in children: the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone
Jung In Kang, Yoon Suk Lee, Ye Jin Han, Kyoung Ae Kong, Hae Soon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(2):45-49.   Published online February 27, 2017
Purpose

Serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) is considered as the most appropriate marker of vitamin D status. However, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between 25-OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in children. To this end, this study was aimed at evaluating the lowest 25-OHD level that suppresses the production of parathyroid hormone in children.

Methods

A retrospective record review was...

Nutrition
Increment in vitamin D level and bone mineral accrual in children with vitamin D deficiency
Yashwant Kumar Rao, Tanu Midha, Satyajeet Singh, Anurag Bajpai, Amita Tilak
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(7):292-297.   Published online July 31, 2016
Purpose

To compare different regimens of vitamin D with respect to its serum increment levels and bone mineral accrual in vitamin D-deficient children.

Methods

Children identified as being vitamin D deficient (serum levels<20 ng/mL) were divided into 3 treatment groups by stratified block randomization (group 1, 4,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 plus 50 mg/kg/day calcium for 12 weeks; group 2, 30,000 IU/wk of...

Severe vitamin D deficiency in preterm infants: maternal and neonatal clinical features
Sook-Hyun Park, Gi-Min Lee, Jung-Eun Moon, Heng-Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):427-433.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

We investigated the vitamin D status of preterm infants to determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency.

Methods

A total of 278 preterm infants delivered at Kyungpook National University Hospital between January 2013 and May 2015 were enrolled. The serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were measured at birth. We collected maternal and neonatal data such as...

Vitamin D serum levels in children with allergic and vasomotor rhinitis
Seung Jin Lee, Bong Hwa Kang, Bong Seok Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):325-329.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

In addition to regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D is known as an immune modulator. Recently, there has been increased worldwide interest in the association between low levels of vitamin D and allergic diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and allergic/vasomotor rhinitis (AR/VR) in children.

Methods

This study...

Iron and vitamin D status in breastfed infants and their mothers
Yu Sun Kang, Joon Hwan Kim, Eun Hee Ahn, Eun-Gyong Yoo, Moon Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):283-287.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

We assessed the relationships between iron and vitamin D statuses in breastfed infants and their mothers and evaluated the determinants of iron and vitamin D deficiencies in breastfed infants.

Methods

Seventy breastfed infants aged 4-24 months and their mothers participated in this study from February 2012 to May 2013. Complete blood counts, total iron binding capacity, and levels of C-reactive protein, iron,...

Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and interleukin-31 levels, and the severity of atopic dermatitis in children
Bo Ram Cheon, Jeong Eun Shin, Yun Ji Kim, Jae Won Shim, Deok Soo Kim, Hye Lim Jung, Moon Soo Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(3):96-101.   Published online March 20, 2015
Purpose

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory relapsing skin disorder. Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in the development of AD, and interleukin (IL) 31 is known to be related to pruritus in AD. The aim of our study was to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are related to IL-31 levels or to the severity of AD.

Methods

We enrolled 91...

Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)
Youn Ho Shin, Jinho Yu, Kyung Won Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Seo-Ah Hong, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Ji-Won Kwon, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Jung Yeon Shim, Woo Kyung Kim, Dae Jin Song, So-Yeon Lee, Soo Young Lee, Gwang Cheon Jang, Dong In Suh, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bong Sung Kim, Suk-Joo Choi, Soo-Young Oh, Ja-Young Kwon, Kyung-Ju Lee, Hee Jin Park, Pil Ryang Lee, Hye-Sung Won, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(10):439-445.   Published online October 31, 2013
Purpose

Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort.

Methods

The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean...

Review Article
Vitamin D status and childhood health
Youn Ho Shin, Hye Jung Shin, Yong-Jae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(10):417-423.   Published online October 31, 2013

Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency) is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in...

Original Article
Vitamin D deficiency in infants aged 1 to 6 months
You Jin Choi, Moon Kyu Kim, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(5):205-210.   Published online May 28, 2013
Purpose

The aim of this study was to recognize the state of vitamin D among healthy infants aged 1 to 6 months in South Korea, and also to identify the risk factors affecting the level of vitamin D.

Methods

A total of 117 infants were enrolled in this study for 12 months, from March 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012. Serum levels of...

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